Objective. To examine associations between family physical activity and sedentary environment and changes in body mass index (BMI) z-scores among 10-12-year-old children over three years. Method. Design. Longitudinal (three-year follow-up). Subjects. In total, 152 boys and 192 girls aged 10-12 years at baseline. Measurements. Measured height and weight at baseline and follow-up (weight status, BMI z-scores); aspects of the family physical activity and sedentary environment (parental and sibling modelling, reinforcement, social support, family-related barriers, rules/restrictions, home physical environment) measured with a questionnaire completed by parents at baseline. Results. At baseline, 29.6% of boys and 21.9% of girls were overweight or obese, and mean (standard deviation, SD) BMI z-scores were 0.44 (0.99) and 0.28 (0.89), respectively. There was a significant change in BMI z-score among girls (mean change=0.19, SD=0.55, p < 0.001), but not boys. Among boys, the number of items at home able to be used for sedentary behaviour (B=0.11, p=0.037) was associated with relatively greater increases in BMI z-score. Among girls, sibling engagement in physical activity at least three times/wk (B=-0.17, p=0.010) and the number of physical activity equipment items at home (B=-0.05, p=0.018) were associated with relatively greater decreases in BMI z-score. Conclusion. Sibling physical activity and environmental stimuli for sedentary behaviours and physical activity within the home may be important targets for prevention of weight gain during the transition from childhood to adolescence.
Background: Cardiometabolic risk factors are increasing in liver transplant recipients (LTR). Influencing dietary factors have not been assessed. The aim of this observational study was to assess changes in weight, metabolic function, dietary intake and eating behaviours in the first year after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Methods: Consecutive recruitment of 17 patients (14 males) awaiting OLT at a single tertiary hospital. Dietary intake, food behaviours and anthropometry were recorded at baseline, and 6 and 12 months posttransplant. Results: By 12 months, patients had gained on average 7.3% of body weight. The prevalence of overweight or obesity increased from baseline 53% to 77% (P=0.001). By 6 months, 65% (n=11/17) of patients had altered glucose metabolism. Dietary intake was consistent with a Western-style dietary pattern with high saturated fat. Over half of the patients (69%, n=11/16) reported low to no depressive feelings and rated their self-esteem as good (53%, n=9/16). The Power of Food Scale increased between pre and post-transplant, indicating a stronger appetitive drive. Conclusions: Weight gain occurs early post-transplant, with significant metabolic dysfunction present within 6 months, however is not associated with significant psychological distress. Early dietary intervention designed to limit weight gain and target cardiometabolic health is recommended for this unique patient population.