Introduction: To determine the incidence rate and changes over time for ice and snow sports injury in Victoria, Australia, from 2003 to 2012 and describe the most common types and causes of these injuries. Methods: Retrospective data from the Victorian Injury Surveillance Unit describing hospital admissions and emergency department presentations were extracted for the 10-year period of 2003 to 2012 for all ice- and snow-related injury. Descriptive injury data and participation-adjusted trend analyses using log-linear regression modelling of data (statistical significance, P<0.05) from the Exercise, Recreation and Sport Survey 2003 to 2010 are presented. Results: Overall, there were 7387 ice- and snow-related injuries, with a significant increase in hospital-treated snowboard injuries and a (nonsignificant) decline in hospital-treated ski injuries over the 10 years. Skiing (39%) and snowboarding (37%) had the highest incidence of hospital-treated injury, with males aged 15 to 24 years injured most frequently in both sports. Falls were the most common cause of injury in both skiing (68%) and snowboarding (78%). Conclusions: Patterns of snow sports injury in Australia during 2003 to 2012 remain similar to findings of national studies conducted decades earlier. More importantly, however, Australian injury patterns are comparable to international statistics and thus may be generalizable internationally. Head injuries, although infrequent, are associated with great injury severity due to a high frequency of hospitalization. Furthermore, research into the use of personal protective equipment and other injury prevention measures among Australian participants, particularly by young, male snowboarders, is required. Given the similar injury patterns, injury prevention measures implemented internationally could reasonably translate to an Australian setting.
Background: Injuries are common in rugby sevens, but studies to date have been limited to short, noncontinuous periods and reporting of match injuries only. Purpose: To report the injury incidence rate (IIR), severity, and burden of injuries sustained by men and women in the Australian rugby sevens program and to provide the first longitudinal investigation of subsequent injury occurrence in rugby sevens looking beyond tournament injuries only. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Ninety international rugby sevens players (55 men and 35 women) were prospectively followed over 2 consecutive seasons (2015-2016 and 2016-2017). All medical attention injuries were reported irrespective of time loss. Individual exposure in terms of minutes, distance, and high-speed distance was captured for each player for matches and on-field training, with the use of global positioning system devices. The IIR and injury burden (IIR × days lost to injury) were calculated per 1000 player-hours, and descriptive analyses were performed. Results: Seventy-three players (81.1%) sustained 365 injuries at an IIR of 43.2 per 1000 player-hours (95% CI, 43.0-43.3). As compared with male players, female players experienced a lower IIR (incidence rate ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.90-0.91). Female players also sustained a higher proportion of injuries to the trunk region (relative risk, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.28-2.40) but a lower number to the head/neck region (relative risk, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.93; P =.011). The majority (80.7%) of subsequent injuries were of a different site and nature than previous injuries. A trend toward a reduced number of days, participation time, distance, and high-speed distance completed before the next injury was observed after successive injury occurrence. Conclusion: Female players have a lower IIR than male players, with variation of injury profiles observed between sexes. With a surveillance period of 2 years, subsequent injuries account for the majority of injuries sustained in rugby sevens, and they are typically different from previous types of sustained injuries. After each successive injury, the risk profile for future injury occurrence appears to be altered, which warrants further investigation to inform injury prevention strategies in rugby sevens.