Preparations of the previously unreported, water-soluble, tetraguanidinium, tetracholine and tetrakisbenzyltrimethylammonium ellagates are outlined. Ellagic acid and these water-soluble salts remove Mg2+, Ca2+ and Mn2+ ions from dilute aqueous solutions at pH greater than 7. The salts also remove Fe2+, Fe3+, Co2+ and Cu2+ between pH 3 and pH 6. At pH 1 the water-soluble ellagates underwent hydrolysis, resulting in the precipitation of free ellagic acid in preference to the formation of metal-ellagate complexes. These trends were also observed when mixtures of metal ions were applied.
Flaxseed protein isolate (FPI) was extracted from flaxseeds, and its amino acid composition and functional properties (solubility, thermal stability, emulsifying properties and electrostatic charge density, water holding and fat absorption capacities) were determined. The highest purity of FPI (90.6%) was achieved by extraction at 60°C. FPI had a low lysine to arginine ratio of 0.25, which is desired in heart-healthy foods and infant formulas. The denaturation temperature of FPI was 105°C. FPI had the highest emulsion activity index (375.51m2/g), highest emulsion stability index (179.5h) and zeta potential (−67.4mV) when compared to those of other commonly used proteins, such as sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), gelatin (Gel) and soy protein isolate (SPI). The average emulsion droplet size of emulsions stabilized by these proteins was in the order SC