Objective: To identify independent factors associated with caregiver supervision levels at beaches. Methods: Children (aged 1-14 years) engaged in beach play and their caregivers were observed at Australian beaches during September-April, 2008/09. Caregiver, child, and environmental factor data were collected and recorded on a validated observation instrument. The main outcome of interest was a continuous measure of supervision. After adjusting for potential clustering by beach/state, multivariable linear regression was used to identify independent factors associated with caregiver supervision. Results: Four independent predictors of supervision and one interaction effect (child age by the caregiver and child position on beach) were identified. Caregivers who were supervising from a different position to where the child was playing were less likely to provide high supervision, as were older caregivers (>35 years) compared to younger caregivers (≤34 years). Compared to children playing alone, children playing with one, or two or more others were less likely to receive high supervision, and children aged 1-4 years were likely to receive higher supervision than older children. Conclusion: This study provides new knowledge about underlying factors associated with the level of caregiver supervision in beach settings. Future studies should continue to explore independent predictors of supervision so that effective programmes, which focus on caregiver supervision, can be targeted to address poor supervision practices.
Cholera is a severe diarrhoeal illness caused by infection with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. From July 2009 to late 2011 Papua New Guinea (PNG) experienced thefirst outbreak of cholera ever reported in this country. During this time > 15,000 cases of cholera were reported, resulting in approximately 500 deaths. The origin of this outbreak is unknown, but considering the remote location of the initial outbreak an infected international traveller is unlikely to be the source. In this paper we review the characteristics of the PNG cholera outbreak and discuss the ongoing threat of cholera to the country and the region.