Cognitive radio network (CRN) users are inherently expected to experience widely varied delays and jitters due to the uncertainty in channel availability. Supporting delay sensitive real-time services through CRNs thus remains a challenging task. This paper presents a novel technique to provision QoS guarantee in CRNs by modeling the resultant channel of multiple primary networks and finding the optimum number of primary channels to support a desired level of expected latency. In doing so, this paper introduces a cognitive radio based MAC, which can effectively co-exists with primary CSMA/CA networks by accurately estimating the start of the spectrum holes, reliably modeling channel occupation by the primary users, and using event-driven sensing to adaptively control the sensing frequency and interval. Simulation results with ns-2.33 reveal that a CR network based on the proposed MAC can achieve the targeted service delay time by appropriately selecting optimal WLAN primary channels.
In a distributed, dynamic and volatile operating environment, runtime anomalies occurring in service-oriented systems (SOSs) must be located and fixed in a timely manner in order to guarantee successful delivery of outcomes in response to user requests. Monitoring all component services constantly and inspecting the entire SOS upon a runtime anomaly are impractical due to excessive resource and time consumption required, especially in large-scale scenarios. We present a spectrum-based approach that goes through a five-phase process to quickly localize runtime anomalies occurring in SOSs based on end-to-end system delays. Upon runtime anomalies, our approach calculates the similarity coefficient for each basic component (BC) of the SOS to evaluate their suspiciousness of being faulty. Our approach also calculates the delay coefficients to evaluate each BC's contribution to the severity of the end-to-end system delays. Finally, the BCs are ranked by their similarity coefficient scores and delay coefficient scores to determine the order of them being inspected. Extensive experiments are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The results indicate that our approach significantly outperforms random inspection and the popular Ochiai-based inspection in localizing single and multiple runtime anomalies effectively. Thus, our approach can help save time and effort for localizing runtime anomalies occuring in SOSs.