Wastewater from a dairy processor is being reused and recycled both within the plant and for irrigation. Flash pyrolysis GC–MS was used to examine nitrogen and phenol containing compounds (M.W. = 35 to 450 g/mol) in the particulate fraction of the milk condensate, combined clean wastewater and aerobic bioreactor effluent. For comparison, the particulates were also prepared for standard GC–MS analyses using conventional solvent extraction methods. Compounds detected by pyrolysis GC–MS were found mostly in the bioreactor with the amino acid arginine (220 mg/kg) and the amino acid derivative 1-methyl-5-oxo-L-proline methyl ester (130 mg/kg) found at the highest concentrations. In comparison, sterols detected in the effluent were found at higher concentrations when using solvent extraction indicating some degradation with pyrolysis GC–MS. However, with few exceptions, particulates were generally found not to act as passive collectors capable of concentrating less water soluble chemicals.
The present paper describes the characterization of Pakistan lignite coal, derived humic acids (HAL) and nitrohumic acids (NHA) along with the standard leonardite humic acids (LHA). The study utilized chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to characterize the structure of coal and derived materials. Pyrolysis coupled to gc/ms was conducted with and without methylating agent (tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide). The pyrolysis study resulted in releasing mainly fatty acid methyl esters, different series of hydrocarbons and α, ω-dicarboxylic acid methyl esters. Triterpenoids, syringic and ρ-coumaric compounds and aromatic compounds derived from lignin moieties were also detected. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and NMR data helped to evaluate the influence of coal rank on regeneration and nitration processes with respect to chemical structural composition of coal and derived materials. FT-IR spectra of four materials were similar except that NHA showed an absorption band at 1532cm−1, thus confirming the presence of -NO2 groups. 13C NMR indicated higher aromaticity and less hydroxylalkyl material in HAL than NHA. The elemental composition and acid functional group content of four materials were also reported. The combination of results from different analytical techniques gives an improved understanding of the Pakistan coal nature and helpful for its future utilization.