This paper focuses on the relationship between information systems (IS) and organizational processes from the perspective of the rationality of actors and their actions. The terms rational and rationality that are used in theoretical writings and in everyday life denote a multiplicity of meanings. The idea of reason has been connected with the disposition of actors to give rational grounds for or logical explanations of their beliefs and actions. Similarly, the actions by which actors achieve desired ends are regarded as rational. Furthermore, organizational processes that embody and are governed by rational actions are considered rational. More generally, an increase in the rationality that characterizes modern organizations and society is called rationalization. This paper explores the relationship between IS and organizations within the light of the progressive rationalization of organizational processes.
To consider the changing philosophical and theoretical construction of nursing which has moved from an initial focus on positivism and science, and undergone a paradigmatic shift so that it is now being interpreted by some nursing theorists in alternative ways. Primary Argument A theoretical review of some nursing theorists and a critical consideration of the wider concepts which have been influential in theoretical constructions gradually moving from the received (positivistic) to the perceived view. The perceived view encompasses the emergence and influence of non-positivist philosophies, which shift the theoretical focus away from causation to a more interpretive, unscientific standpoint, with foundations in phenomenology, humanism, holistic care and qualitative research. The paper demonstrates that many of the theories offered are esoteric, complicated and constructed in an academic way that tends to escape the everyday nurse practitioner. Conclusion That multiple options which capture the philosophies and ideologies of both paradigms should/could be considered.