The denaturation kinetics of whey protein isolate (WPI), in the presence and absence of lactose and trehalose, was quantified in a convective air-drying environment. Single droplets of WPI, WPI-lactose and WPI-trehalose were dried in conditioned air (2.5% RH, 0.5 m/s air velocity) at two temperatures (65°C and 80°C) for 500 s. The initial solid concentration of these solutions was 10% (w/v) in all the samples. Approximately 68% of WPI was denatured when it was dried in the absence of sugars. Addition of 20% trehalose prevented the irreversible denaturation of WPI at both temperatures. Thirty percent lactose was required to prevent denaturation of WPI at 65°C and the same amount of lactose protected only 70% of WPI from denaturation at 80°C. The secondary structures of WPI were found to be altered by the drying-induced stresses, even in the presence of 20% trehalose and 30% lactose.
The extent and nature of denaturation of whey protein isolate (WPI) in convective air drying environments was measured and analysed using single droplet drying. A custom-built, single droplet drying instrument was used for this purpose. Single droplets having 5. ±. 0.1. Î¼l volume (initial droplet diameter 1.5. ±. 0.1. mm) containing 10% (w/v) WPI were dried at air temperatures of 45, 65 and 80. °C for 600. s at constant air velocity of 0.5. m/s. The extent and nature of denaturation of WPI in isothermal heat treatment processes was measured at 65 and 80. °C for 600. s and compared with those obtained from convective air drying. The extent of denaturation of WPI in a high hydrostatic pressure environment (600. MPa for 600. s) was also determined. The results showed that at the end of 600. s of convective drying at 65. °C the denaturation of WPI was 68.3%, while it was only 10.8% during isothermal heat treatment at the same medium temperature. When the medium temperature was maintained at 80. °C, the denaturation loss of WPI was 90.0% and 68.7% during isothermal heat treatment and convective drying, respectively. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) fraction of WPI was found to be more stable in the convective drying conditions than