There is increased recognition of the importance of children learning how to regulate emotions in a functional and adaptive manner for healthy psychological development. However, there is a paucity of tools for assessing emotion regulation during the middle childhood and adolescent years. This study reports on the psychometric evaluation of the 16-item self-report Emotion Regulation Index for Children and Adolescents (ERICA) involving a sample of 1,389 (768 girls, 621 boys) Australian children and adolescents aged 9 to 16 years. Convergent validity for the ERICA is reported with measures of self-conscious emotions (shame, guilt), empathy, childhood depressive symptomatology, and the perceived parenting dimensions of Care and Overprotection. Construct validity assessment using Principal Components Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis yielded three factors: (1) Emotional Control, (2) Emotional Self-Awareness, and (3) Situational Responsiveness. The ERICA was also found to have good internal consistency and to be relatively stable over a four week test-retest period and to be sensitive to age and sex differences. It is concluded that the ERICA is a psychometrically sound measure for the assessment of the identified key aspects of emotion regulation in children and adolescents.
Impulsivity is a factor that has been linked strongly to problem gambling; however, conceptualization problems have impeded research in this area. Research suggests that there may be as many as five impulsivity subtypes and that some but not all of these subtypes are involved in problem gambling. This cross-sectional and correlational study used the multifaceted UPPS-P Impulsive Behaviour Scale as a predictor of problem gambling in a community (N= 200) sample of Australian adult gamblers. Of the five impulsivity subtypes, negative urgency, positive urgency and sensation seeking were found to be positively related to problem gambling, while lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance were unrelated. Multiple regression analyses revealed that positive urgency and negative urgency were the only significant predictors of problem gambling, suggesting that individuals who have the tendency to act rashly when in a positive or negative mood are more likely to display problem gambling behaviour. The results provide further evidence of the significant role of strong emotions in problem gambling. Further, it appears that problem gambling can be motivated both by the impulsive desire to avoid negative mood states and by the impulsive desire to maintain and enhance positive mood states.