Complex gold deposits are generally characterised by variable geometries, strong structural controls on grade distribution and a high-nugget effect. The use of diamond drilling and fire assays in this environment often results in an understatement of grade. Bulk samples are likely to be the closest estimators of true grade, and may be required to evaluate geological/grade risk during resource estimation/feasibility studies. Any bulk sampling program requires appropriate planning and implementation. The planning stage should attempt to delimit the extent and nature of mineralisation; characterise mineralogy and metallurgical properties of the ore; and define bulk sample size and how it will be sampled/processed. The approach to sample processing will be governed by the results of metallurgical testing and geological knowledge. Careful design of sampling protocols must be undertaken through material characterisation, understanding of gold particle sizing and the application of Gy's Sampling Theory.