Study Objectives: To investigate whether cognitive behavior therapy was effective for older adults with comorbid insomnia and depression in a community mental health setting, and explore whether an advanced form of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia produced better outcomes compared to a standard form of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia. Methods: An 8-week randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted within community mental health services, Victoria, Australia. Seventy-two older adults (56% female, M age 75 ± 7 years) with diagnosed comorbid insomnia and depression participated. Three conditions were tested using a group therapy format: cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I, standard), cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia plus positive mood strategies (CBT-I+, advanced), psychoeducation control group (PCG, control). The primary outcomes were insomnia severity (Insomnia Severity Index) and depression severity (Geriatric Depression Scale). Primary and secondary measures were collected at pre (week 0), post (week 8), and follow-up (week 20). Results: CBT-I and CBT-I+ both generated significantly greater reductions in insomnia and depression severity compared to PCG from pre to post (p < .001), which were maintained at follow-up. Although the differences between outcomes of the two treatment conditions were not statistically significant, the study was not sufficiently powered to detect either superiority of one treatment or equivalence of the two treatment conditions. Conclusion: CBT-I and CBT-I+ were both effective at reducing insomnia and depression severity for older adults. Mental health services that deliver treatment for comorbid insomnia with cognitive behavior therapy may improve recovery outcomes for older adults with depression. Trial Registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR); URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au; Trial ID: ACTRN12615000067572; Date Registered: December 12, 2014.
Sense of belonging has been regarded as important for mental health. This study investigated sense of belonging to the general community and sense of belonging to the gay community as predictors of depression among self-identified Australian gay men (N = 137). Participants completed the Psychological subscale of the Sense of Belonging Instrument and the Depression subscale of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. Results offered support for the additive model and suggested that sense of belonging to the general community partially mediated the relation between sense of belonging to the gay community and depression, as well as the reverse, that sense of belonging to the gay community partially mediated the relation between sense of belonging to the general community and depression. Findings failed to support a moderation effect model. Results indicate that increasing a sense of belonging to both communities will be associated with a decrease in levels of depression reported by gay men. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Men's Health is the property of Men's Studies Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)