Objectives: Higher levels of depression have been documented among older adults who reside in an assisted living facility, compared with those who remain in their own homes. The aims of the current study were to test whether the relationship between housing type and depressive symptoms was mediated by a sense of belonging and whether housing type and sense of belonging interact to influence the depressive symptoms among older adults (moderation model).Method: A sample of 257 older adults who lived in their own homes and 166 older adults who lived in an assisted living facility completed the psychological subscale of the Sense of Belonging Instrument and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.Results: Results showed that a sense of belonging partially mediated the relationship between housing type and depressive symptoms, such that living in a nursing home was associated with lower levels of belonging, and lower levels of belonging were, in turn, associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Residing in an assisted living facility was associated with depressive symptoms at low and average levels of belonging.Conclusion: Results highlight the need for more research on the role of sense of belonging as an influencing factor on depressive symptoms among institutionalised older adults for both theoretical and treatment goals.
Objectives: Depression is a significant mental health issue among older Australian adults. Research has indicated that insomnia is a key risk factor for the development of depressive symptoms in older adults, and that dispositional hope may be protective against the development of depressive symptoms in this population. This study examined whether dispositional hope and its dimensions, agency and pathways, moderated the relationship between insomnia symptoms and depressive symptoms among older Australian adults. Method: A community sample of 88 men (Mage = 71.11, SDage = 5.54) and 111 women (Mage = 70.25, SDage = 4.64), aged 65–94 years, completed the Insomnia Severity Index, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and Centre of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results: After controlling for gender, age, relationship status, education level, method of participation, and perceived physical health, results supported the moderation models. The insomnia–depressive symptoms relation was significant for older adults with low and average (but not high) levels of dispositional hope, agency, and pathways. The Johnson–Neyman analyses indicated that the insomnia–depressive symptoms relation was significant for older adults who scored below 27.10 on dispositional hope, below 13.73 on agency, and below 13.49 and above 15.64 on pathways. Conclusion: The results of this study imply that interventions aimed at increasing dispositional hope, agency, and pathways among older adults who experience symptoms of insomnia may reduce their depressive symptoms. A cautionary note, however, is that very high scores on pathways among older adults who experience insomnia symptoms may be detrimental to their mental health.