The purpose of the study was to investigate landings In netball to ascertain whether or not an extra step on landing would significantly alter the forces on the body and to Investigate the landings that were least stressful on the body. Eighteen State or Under 21 netball players participated as subjects. The subjects performed five different landing conditions at two pass heights. The five landing conditions were three legal landings consisting of a piVOt. a run-on and a two foot landing. The other two landings used an extra step technique for the pivot and run-on landings. Data were collected using two force plates. The data were analysed using an ANCOVA, with approach speed as the covariate. The range of values for peak vertical ground reaction force were from 3.53 to 5,74 BW and for peak braking force the range was from 0.83 to 1,75 BW. No Significant differences were found between each respective legal and extra step techniques. The run-on techniques exhibited lower peak forces, longer attenuation times and lower loading rates than the pivot or two foot landing conditions. The data clearly showed that there were no advantages to be gained from taking an extra step for either the pivot or run-on landing techniques. The run-on technique of landing appears to be most beneficial to reducing loads on the lower limb. Achange to the footwork rules cannot be recommended based on the results of this study.
This short report describes a 20-month follow-up of safe diving skills, extending the 8-month retention period previously published in this journal. Thirty-four recreational swimmers with poor diving skills were evaluated before and immediately after a diving skills intervention program. Twenty-two returned for the eight-month follow-up evaluation and 16 returned 20 months post. As with the earlier study, Treadwater, Deck, Block and Running dives were video-recorded, and maximum depth, distance, velocity, entry angle and flight distance were compared. Underwater hand and arm positions were examined. Pre-intervention, a breaststroke arm action before maximum depth occurred in 18% of all dives and 38% of Treadwater dives. This was eliminated post-intervention, improving head protection. The Treadwater dive elicited the greatest mean maximum depth, and ANOVA showed depth for this entry decreased (improved) following intervention and remained shallower at the eight-month and 20-month post follow-ups. The Block dive also became shallower following intervention while the Deck dive remained unchanged. As seven 10-minute skills sessions resulted in shallower dives with safer hand and arm positions, and these skills were retained over a 600 day non-practice period, it is reliable to consider that the inclusion of safe diving skills in learn-to-swim programs can provide a diving spinal cord injury prevention strategy.