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3López, Marco
3Outrata, Jiri
2Gfrerer, Helmut
1Bagirov, Adil
1Burachik, Regina
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1Dinh, Nguyen
1Goberna, Miguel
1Joki, Kaisa
1Karmitsa, Napsu
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1Lindstrom, Scott
1Makela, Marko
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1Mordukhovich, Boris
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90102 Applied Mathematics
90103 Numerical and Computational Mathematics
3Computer science
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2Variational analysis
10101 Pure Mathematics
10802 Computation Theory and Mathematics
1Aubin properties
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1Bregman distance
1Bundle methods
1Calmness
1Calmness modulus
1Clarke stationarity
1Cone-constraint programming
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From the Farkas lemma to the Hahn-Banach theorem

- Dinh, Nguyen, Goberna, Miguel, López, Marco, Mo, T. H.

**Authors:**Dinh, Nguyen , Goberna, Miguel , López, Marco , Mo, T. H.**Date:**2014**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 24, no. 2 (2014), p. 678-701**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**This paper provides new versions of the Farkas lemma characterizing those inequalities of the form f(x) â‰¥ 0 which are consequences of a composite convex inequality (S Â° g)(x) â‰¤ 0 on a closed convex subset of a given locally convex topological vector space X, where f is a proper lower semicontinuous convex function defined on X, S is an extended sublinear function, and g is a vector-valued S-convex function. In parallel, associated versions of a stable Farkas lemma, considering arbitrary linear perturbations of f, are also given. These new versions of the Farkas lemma, and their corresponding stable forms, are established under the weakest constraint qualification conditions (the so-called closedness conditions), and they are actually equivalent to each other, as well as quivalent to an extended version of the so-called Hahn-Banach-Lagrange theorem, and its stable version, correspondingly. It is shown that any of them implies analytic and algebraic versions of the Hahn-Banach theorem and the Mazur-Orlicz theorem for extended sublinear functions.

**Authors:**Dinh, Nguyen , Goberna, Miguel , López, Marco , Mo, T. H.**Date:**2014**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 24, no. 2 (2014), p. 678-701**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**This paper provides new versions of the Farkas lemma characterizing those inequalities of the form f(x) â‰¥ 0 which are consequences of a composite convex inequality (S Â° g)(x) â‰¤ 0 on a closed convex subset of a given locally convex topological vector space X, where f is a proper lower semicontinuous convex function defined on X, S is an extended sublinear function, and g is a vector-valued S-convex function. In parallel, associated versions of a stable Farkas lemma, considering arbitrary linear perturbations of f, are also given. These new versions of the Farkas lemma, and their corresponding stable forms, are established under the weakest constraint qualification conditions (the so-called closedness conditions), and they are actually equivalent to each other, as well as quivalent to an extended version of the so-called Hahn-Banach-Lagrange theorem, and its stable version, correspondingly. It is shown that any of them implies analytic and algebraic versions of the Hahn-Banach theorem and the Mazur-Orlicz theorem for extended sublinear functions.

Full stability of locally optimal solutions in second-order cone programs

- Mordukhovich, Boris, Outrata, Jiri, Sarabi, Ebrahim

**Authors:**Mordukhovich, Boris , Outrata, Jiri , Sarabi, Ebrahim**Date:**2014**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 24, no. 4 (2014), p. 1581-1613**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**The paper presents complete characterizations of Lipschitzian full stability of locally optimal solutions to second-order cone programs (SOCPs) expressed entirely in terms of their initial data. These characterizations are obtained via appropriate versions of the quadratic growth and strong second-order sufficient conditions under the corresponding constraint qualifications. We also establish close relationships between full stability of local minimizers for SOCPs and strong regularity of the associated generalized equations at nondegenerate points. Our approach is mainly based on advanced tools of second-order variational analysis and generalized differentiation.

**Authors:**Mordukhovich, Boris , Outrata, Jiri , Sarabi, Ebrahim**Date:**2014**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 24, no. 4 (2014), p. 1581-1613**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**The paper presents complete characterizations of Lipschitzian full stability of locally optimal solutions to second-order cone programs (SOCPs) expressed entirely in terms of their initial data. These characterizations are obtained via appropriate versions of the quadratic growth and strong second-order sufficient conditions under the corresponding constraint qualifications. We also establish close relationships between full stability of local minimizers for SOCPs and strong regularity of the associated generalized equations at nondegenerate points. Our approach is mainly based on advanced tools of second-order variational analysis and generalized differentiation.

Calmness modulus of linear semi-infinite programs

- Cánovas, Maria, Kruger, Alexander, López, Marco, Parra, Juan, Théra, Michel

**Authors:**Cánovas, Maria , Kruger, Alexander , López, Marco , Parra, Juan , Théra, Michel**Date:**2014**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 24, no. 1 (2014), p. 29-48**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP110102011**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**Our main goal is to compute or estimate the calmness modulus of the argmin mapping of linear semi-infinite optimization problems under canonical perturbations, i.e., perturbations of the objective function together with continuous perturbations of the right-hand side of the constraint system (with respect to an index ranging in a compact Hausdorff space). Specifically, we provide a lower bound on the calmness modulus for semi-infinite programs with unique optimal solution which turns out to be the exact modulus when the problem is finitely constrained. The relationship between the calmness of the argmin mapping and the same property for the (sub)level set mapping (with respect to the objective function), for semi-infinite programs and without requiring the uniqueness of the nominal solution, is explored, too, providing an upper bound on the calmness modulus of the argmin mapping. When confined to finitely constrained problems, we also provide a computable upper bound as it only relies on the nominal data and parameters, not involving elements in a neighborhood. Illustrative examples are provided.

**Authors:**Cánovas, Maria , Kruger, Alexander , López, Marco , Parra, Juan , Théra, Michel**Date:**2014**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 24, no. 1 (2014), p. 29-48**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP110102011**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**Our main goal is to compute or estimate the calmness modulus of the argmin mapping of linear semi-infinite optimization problems under canonical perturbations, i.e., perturbations of the objective function together with continuous perturbations of the right-hand side of the constraint system (with respect to an index ranging in a compact Hausdorff space). Specifically, we provide a lower bound on the calmness modulus for semi-infinite programs with unique optimal solution which turns out to be the exact modulus when the problem is finitely constrained. The relationship between the calmness of the argmin mapping and the same property for the (sub)level set mapping (with respect to the objective function), for semi-infinite programs and without requiring the uniqueness of the nominal solution, is explored, too, providing an upper bound on the calmness modulus of the argmin mapping. When confined to finitely constrained problems, we also provide a computable upper bound as it only relies on the nominal data and parameters, not involving elements in a neighborhood. Illustrative examples are provided.

The excess degree of a polytope

- Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo, Ugon, Julien, Yost, David

**Authors:**Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien , Yost, David**Date:**2018**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Discrete Mathematics Vol. 32, no. 3 (2018), p. 2011-2046, http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**We define the excess degree \xi (P) of a d-polytope P as 2f1 - df0, where f0 and f1 denote the number of vertices and edges, respectively. This parameter measures how much P deviates from being simple. It turns out that the excess degree of a d-polytope does not take every natural number: the smallest possible values are 0 and d - 2, and the value d - 1 only occurs when d = 3 or 5. On the other hand, for fixed d, the number of values not taken by the excess degree is finite if d is odd, and the number of even values not taken by the excess degree is finite if d is even. The excess degree is then applied in three different settings. First, it is used to show that polytopes with small excess (i.e., \xi (P) < d) have a very particular structure: provided d ot = 5, either there is a unique nonsimple vertex, or every nonsimple vertex has degree d + 1. This implies that such polytopes behave in a similar manner to simple polytopes in terms of Minkowski decomposability: they are either decomposable or pyramidal, and their duals are always indecomposable. Second, we characterize completely the decomposable d-polytopes with 2d + 1 vertices (up to combinatorial equivalence). Third, all pairs (f0, f1), for which there exists a 5-polytope with f0 vertices and f1 edges, are determined.

**Authors:**Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien , Yost, David**Date:**2018**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Discrete Mathematics Vol. 32, no. 3 (2018), p. 2011-2046, http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**We define the excess degree \xi (P) of a d-polytope P as 2f1 - df0, where f0 and f1 denote the number of vertices and edges, respectively. This parameter measures how much P deviates from being simple. It turns out that the excess degree of a d-polytope does not take every natural number: the smallest possible values are 0 and d - 2, and the value d - 1 only occurs when d = 3 or 5. On the other hand, for fixed d, the number of values not taken by the excess degree is finite if d is odd, and the number of even values not taken by the excess degree is finite if d is even. The excess degree is then applied in three different settings. First, it is used to show that polytopes with small excess (i.e., \xi (P) < d) have a very particular structure: provided d ot = 5, either there is a unique nonsimple vertex, or every nonsimple vertex has degree d + 1. This implies that such polytopes behave in a similar manner to simple polytopes in terms of Minkowski decomposability: they are either decomposable or pyramidal, and their duals are always indecomposable. Second, we characterize completely the decomposable d-polytopes with 2d + 1 vertices (up to combinatorial equivalence). Third, all pairs (f0, f1), for which there exists a 5-polytope with f0 vertices and f1 edges, are determined.

Facially exposed cones are not always nice

**Authors:**Roshchina, Vera**Date:**2014**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 24, no. 1 (2014), p. 257-268**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**We address the conjecture proposed by GÃ¡bor Pataki that every facially exposed cone is nice. We show that the conjecture is true in the three-dimensional case; however, there exists a four-dimensional counterexample of a cone that is facially exposed but is not nice.

**Authors:**Roshchina, Vera**Date:**2014**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 24, no. 1 (2014), p. 257-268**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**We address the conjecture proposed by GÃ¡bor Pataki that every facially exposed cone is nice. We show that the conjecture is true in the three-dimensional case; however, there exists a four-dimensional counterexample of a cone that is facially exposed but is not nice.

On lipschitzian properties of implicit multifunctions

- Gfrerer, Helmut, Outrata, Jiri

**Authors:**Gfrerer, Helmut , Outrata, Jiri**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 26, no. 4 (2016), p. 2160-2189**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP160100854**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**This paper is devoted to the development of new sufficient conditions for the calmness and the Aubin property of implicit multifunctions. As the basic tool we employ the directional limiting coderivative which, together with the graphical derivative, enables a fine analysis of the local behavior of the investigated multifunction along relevant directions. For verification of the calmness property, in addition, a new condition has been discovered which parallels the missing implicit function paradigm and permits us to replace the original multifunction by a substantially simpler one. Moreover, as an auxiliary tool, a handy formula for the computation of the directional limiting coderivative of the normal-cone map with a polyhedral set has been derived which perfectly matches the framework of [A. L. Dontchev and R. T. Rockafellar, SIAM J. Optim., 6 (1996), pp. 1087{1105]. All important statements are illustrated by examples. © 2016 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

**Authors:**Gfrerer, Helmut , Outrata, Jiri**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 26, no. 4 (2016), p. 2160-2189**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP160100854**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**This paper is devoted to the development of new sufficient conditions for the calmness and the Aubin property of implicit multifunctions. As the basic tool we employ the directional limiting coderivative which, together with the graphical derivative, enables a fine analysis of the local behavior of the investigated multifunction along relevant directions. For verification of the calmness property, in addition, a new condition has been discovered which parallels the missing implicit function paradigm and permits us to replace the original multifunction by a substantially simpler one. Moreover, as an auxiliary tool, a handy formula for the computation of the directional limiting coderivative of the normal-cone map with a polyhedral set has been derived which perfectly matches the framework of [A. L. Dontchev and R. T. Rockafellar, SIAM J. Optim., 6 (1996), pp. 1087{1105]. All important statements are illustrated by examples. © 2016 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

Double bundle method for finding clarke stationary points in nonsmooth dc programming

- Joki, Kaisa, Bagirov, Adil, Karmitsa, Napsu, Makela, Marko, Taheri, Sona

**Authors:**Joki, Kaisa , Bagirov, Adil , Karmitsa, Napsu , Makela, Marko , Taheri, Sona**Date:**2018**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 28, no. 2 (2018), p. 1892-1919**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP140103213**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**The aim of this paper is to introduce a new proximal double bundle method for unconstrained nonsmooth optimization, where the objective function is presented as a difference of two convex (DC) functions. The novelty in our method is a new escape procedure which enables us to guarantee approximate Clarke stationarity for solutions by utilizing the DC components of the objective function. This optimality condition is stronger than the criticality condition typically used in DC programming. Moreover, if a candidate solution is not approximate Clarke stationary, then the escape procedure returns a descent direction. With this escape procedure, we can avoid some shortcomings encountered when criticality is used. The finite termination of the double bundle method to an approximate Clarke stationary point is proved by assuming that the subdifferentials of DC components are polytopes. Finally, some encouraging numerical results are presented.

**Authors:**Joki, Kaisa , Bagirov, Adil , Karmitsa, Napsu , Makela, Marko , Taheri, Sona**Date:**2018**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 28, no. 2 (2018), p. 1892-1919**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP140103213**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**The aim of this paper is to introduce a new proximal double bundle method for unconstrained nonsmooth optimization, where the objective function is presented as a difference of two convex (DC) functions. The novelty in our method is a new escape procedure which enables us to guarantee approximate Clarke stationarity for solutions by utilizing the DC components of the objective function. This optimality condition is stronger than the criticality condition typically used in DC programming. Moreover, if a candidate solution is not approximate Clarke stationary, then the escape procedure returns a descent direction. With this escape procedure, we can avoid some shortcomings encountered when criticality is used. The finite termination of the double bundle method to an approximate Clarke stationary point is proved by assuming that the subdifferentials of DC components are polytopes. Finally, some encouraging numerical results are presented.

On a semismooth* Newton method for solving generalized equations

- Gfrerer, Helmut, Outrata, Jiri

**Authors:**Gfrerer, Helmut , Outrata, Jiri**Date:**2021**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 31, no. 1 (2021), p. 489-517**Relation:**https://doi.org/10.1137/19M1257408**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**In the paper, a Newton-type method for the solution of generalized equations (GEs) is derived, where the linearization concerns both the single-valued and the multivalued part of the considered GE. The method is based on the new notion of semismoothness\ast, which, together with a suitable regularity condition, ensures the local superlinear convergence. An implementable version of the new method is derived for a class of GEs, frequently arising in optimization and equilibrium models. © 2021 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

**Authors:**Gfrerer, Helmut , Outrata, Jiri**Date:**2021**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 31, no. 1 (2021), p. 489-517**Relation:**https://doi.org/10.1137/19M1257408**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**In the paper, a Newton-type method for the solution of generalized equations (GEs) is derived, where the linearization concerns both the single-valued and the multivalued part of the considered GE. The method is based on the new notion of semismoothness\ast, which, together with a suitable regularity condition, ensures the local superlinear convergence. An implementable version of the new method is derived for a class of GEs, frequently arising in optimization and equilibrium models. © 2021 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

Necessary and sufficient optimality conditions in DC semi-infinite programming

- Correa, Rafael, López, Marco, Pérez-Aros, Pedro

**Authors:**Correa, Rafael , López, Marco , Pérez-Aros, Pedro**Date:**2021**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 31, no. 1 (2021), p. 837-865**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**This paper deals with particular families of DC optimization problems involving suprema of convex functions. We show that the specific structure of this type of function allows us to cover a variety of problems in nonconvex programming. Necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for these families of DC optimization problems are established, where some of these structural features are conveniently exploited. More precisely, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for (global and local) optimality in DC semi-infinite programming and DC cone-constrained optimization, under natural constraint qualifications. Finally, a penalty approach to DC abstract programming problems is developed in the last section. © 2021 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

**Authors:**Correa, Rafael , López, Marco , Pérez-Aros, Pedro**Date:**2021**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 31, no. 1 (2021), p. 837-865**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**This paper deals with particular families of DC optimization problems involving suprema of convex functions. We show that the specific structure of this type of function allows us to cover a variety of problems in nonconvex programming. Necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for these families of DC optimization problems are established, where some of these structural features are conveniently exploited. More precisely, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for (global and local) optimality in DC semi-infinite programming and DC cone-constrained optimization, under natural constraint qualifications. Finally, a penalty approach to DC abstract programming problems is developed in the last section. © 2021 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

The generalized bregman distance

- Burachik, Regina, Dao, Minh, Lindstrom, Scott

**Authors:**Burachik, Regina , Dao, Minh , Lindstrom, Scott**Date:**2021**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 31, no. 1 (2021), p. 404-424**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**Recently, a new kind of distance has been introduced for the graphs of two point-to-set operators, one of which is maximally monotone. When both operators are the subdifferential of a proper lower semicontinuous convex function, this kind of distance specializes under modest assumptions to the classical Bregman distance. We name this new kind of distance the generalized Bregman distance, and we shed light on it with examples that utilize the other two most natural representative functions: the Fitzpatrick function and its conjugate. We provide sufficient conditions for convexity, coercivity, and supercoercivity: properties which are essential for implementation in proximal point type algorithms. We establish these results for both the left and right variants of this new kind of distance. We construct examples closely related to the Kullback-Leibler divergence, which was previously considered in the context of Bregman distances and whose importance in information theory is well known. In so doing, we demonstrate how to compute a difficult Fitzpatrick conjugate function, and we discover natural occurrences of the Lambert \scrW function, whose importance in optimization is of growing interest. © 2021 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

**Authors:**Burachik, Regina , Dao, Minh , Lindstrom, Scott**Date:**2021**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Optimization Vol. 31, no. 1 (2021), p. 404-424**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**Recently, a new kind of distance has been introduced for the graphs of two point-to-set operators, one of which is maximally monotone. When both operators are the subdifferential of a proper lower semicontinuous convex function, this kind of distance specializes under modest assumptions to the classical Bregman distance. We name this new kind of distance the generalized Bregman distance, and we shed light on it with examples that utilize the other two most natural representative functions: the Fitzpatrick function and its conjugate. We provide sufficient conditions for convexity, coercivity, and supercoercivity: properties which are essential for implementation in proximal point type algorithms. We establish these results for both the left and right variants of this new kind of distance. We construct examples closely related to the Kullback-Leibler divergence, which was previously considered in the context of Bregman distances and whose importance in information theory is well known. In so doing, we demonstrate how to compute a difficult Fitzpatrick conjugate function, and we discover natural occurrences of the Lambert \scrW function, whose importance in optimization is of growing interest. © 2021 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

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