Extraordinarily severe gas explosion accidents (ESGEAs) (thirty fatalities or more in one accident) have a high occurrence frequency in Chinese coal mines. There are 126 ESGEAs that occurred in China from 1950 to 2015, and they were investigated through statistical methods in this study to review the overall circumstances and to provide quantitative information on ESGEAs. Statistical characteristics about accident-related factors, such as gas accumulation, ignition sources, operating locations, accident time, coal mine regions and coal mine ownership, were assessed in this paper. The statistical analysis shows that disorganized ventilation fan management was the most frequent cause of gas accumulation in ESGEAs, while illegal blasting was the most prominent cause of the ignition source in ESGEAs. Furthermore, ESGEAs were found to occur frequently in certain provinces (e.g., Shanxi, Henan and Heilongjiang) and during November and December of the year. Moreover, most accidents and the largest death tolls generally occur in state-owned coal mines. Based on the results of statistical studies, some countermeasures were proposed in this study.