Sustainable reuse of winery wastewaters (WWW) via land application is of interest given the increasing industrialization of wine production. However, before WWW reuse can become widespread, its chemical composition and consequently its potential long-term impact need to be investigated. In this study, soluble materials in influent and effluent waters from different WWW treatment plants were analyzed at the molecular level using Solid Phase Micro Extraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME GC–MS). The analytical focus was on key compound classes with potential for environmental harm, the majority of which were reduced by all treatments considered here. The effluents retained considerable quantities of recalcitrant phenolic compounds, which is of concern due to their potential phytotoxicity and proven resistance to aerobic degradation. This research highlights the importance of understanding the nature of organic material in WWW to ensure sustainable reuse.
Wastewaters are increasingly being reused in public spaces to supplant the use of potable water. In this study we investigated possible trace organic contaminants in wastewater from a dairy factory applied to a recreation reserve. Samples were taken of recycled dairy factory wastewater used to irrigate the reserve and from the subsurface drainage system after irrigation and after rainfall. Using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, it was found that irrigation drainage mostly contained different compounds to those in rainfall drainage. This drainage water was found to contain residues of three agrochemicals (dicamba, 0.4 ± 0.07