Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) is increasingly recognised as a useful if not imperative source of information for successful and sustainable management of natural resources and protected areas. Such knowledge is often held by local and indigenous people and is at risk where communities are no longer actively connected with the environment in their daily lives. Jiuzhaigou National Park (JNP) is located in the Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture in Northern Sichuan Province in south western China. Prior to the establishment of the park, nine Tibetan villages were located in the area and indigenous Tibetan communities still exist within the park. Members of these communities are now largely dependent on park gate fees and other tourism-related activities for their livelihoods so that, for most members of the community, TEK is no longer applied on a daily basis. This research uses a qualitative approach to investigate whether TEK is held by local people who live and work in JNP. Despite rapid social and economic change, evidence of TEK in the form of location specific knowledge and knowledge of environmental linkages was documented during this preliminary study. Older residents within JNP still hold a great deal of knowledge about past and current distributions of plants and animals, as well as traditional and alternative land management approaches, however this study found little evidence of local capacity building and power sharing based upon this knowledge. Park staff also hold substantial place-based ecological knowledge even though few have a formal education in natural resource management or ecology. In addition, staff and residents have significant insights into emerging natural resource management issues both within and outside the park boundaries. A management approach that better integrates local knowledge, including traditional knowledge of ecosystem management is advocated for JNP. ism). ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR
Aims and objectives: To investigate burnout among nurses from Australia and China and explore the effects of resilience and turnover intention on nurse burnout between the two countries. Background: Nursing shortages and burnout have become serious problems worldwide in recent years. In both developed and developing countries, such as Australia and China, nurse burnout levels are high and therefore attract concern from nurse managers, hospital administrators, nurse educators and researchers. However, few studies have been conducted exploring the differences in burnout and its predictors between Australian and Chinese nurses, particularly investigating the differences in the effect sizes of the predictors. Design: A comparative cross-sectional design was employed. Methods: A total of 100 Australian nurses and 197 Chinese nurses participated in the study. Australian participants completed an online questionnaire, while Chinese participants completed a hardcopy questionnaire. Burnout, resilience and turnover intention were measured. Results: Burnout was worse for Australian participants than Chinese participants. Only having turnover intention significantly predicted burnout in Australian participants, while low resilience, having turnover intention and low level of regular exercise strongly predicted burnout in Chinese participants. The effect size of turnover intention on burnout in the Australian group was almost twice that of the Chinese group. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that there are differences in burnout between Australian and Chinese nurses. The effects of resilience and turnover intention on burnout between the two groups are also identified. Relevance to clinical practice: The differences in nurse burnout and the effects of resilience and turnover intention on burnout should be better understood by nurse managers from Australia and China. Moreover, developing effective strategies relevant to their own country to reduce nurse burnout is recommended.