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20Bagirov, Adil
14Sukhorukova, Nadezda
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Chebyshev multivariate polynomial approximation and point reduction procedure

- Sukhorukova, Nadezda, Ugon, Julien, Yost, David

**Authors:**Sukhorukova, Nadezda , Ugon, Julien , Yost, David**Date:**2021**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Constructive Approximation Vol. 53, no. 3 (2021), p. 529-544**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**We apply the methods of nonsmooth and convex analysis to extend the study of Chebyshev (uniform) approximation for univariate polynomial functions to the case of general multivariate functions (not just polynomials). First of all, we give new necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for multivariate approximation, and a geometrical interpretation of them which reduces to the classical alternating sequence condition in the univariate case. Then, we present a procedure for verification of necessary and sufficient optimality conditions that is based on our generalization of the notion of alternating sequence to the case of multivariate polynomials. Finally, we develop an algorithm for fast verification of necessary optimality conditions in the multivariate polynomial case. © 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

**Authors:**Sukhorukova, Nadezda , Ugon, Julien , Yost, David**Date:**2021**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Constructive Approximation Vol. 53, no. 3 (2021), p. 529-544**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**We apply the methods of nonsmooth and convex analysis to extend the study of Chebyshev (uniform) approximation for univariate polynomial functions to the case of general multivariate functions (not just polynomials). First of all, we give new necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for multivariate approximation, and a geometrical interpretation of them which reduces to the classical alternating sequence condition in the univariate case. Then, we present a procedure for verification of necessary and sufficient optimality conditions that is based on our generalization of the notion of alternating sequence to the case of multivariate polynomials. Finally, we develop an algorithm for fast verification of necessary optimality conditions in the multivariate polynomial case. © 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

Generalised rational approximation and its application to improve deep learning classifiers

- Peiris, V, Sharon, Nir, Sukhorukova, Nadezda, Ugon, Julien

**Authors:**Peiris, V , Sharon, Nir , Sukhorukova, Nadezda , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2021**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Applied Mathematics and Computation Vol. 389, no. (2021), p.**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**A rational approximation (that is, approximation by a ratio of two polynomials) is a flexible alternative to polynomial approximation. In particular, rational functions exhibit accurate estimations to nonsmooth and non-Lipschitz functions, where polynomial approximations are not efficient. We prove that the optimisation problems appearing in the best uniform rational approximation and its generalisation to a ratio of linear combinations of basis functions are quasiconvex even when the basis functions are not restricted to monomials. Then we show how this fact can be used in the development of computational methods. This paper presents a theoretical study of the arising optimisation problems and provides results of several numerical experiments. We apply our approximation as a preprocessing step to deep learning classifiers and demonstrate that the classification accuracy is significantly improved compared to the classification of the raw signals. © 2020**Description:**This research was supported by the Australian Research Council (ARC), Solving hard Chebyshev approximation problems through nonsmooth analysis (Discovery Project DP180100602 ). This research was partially sponsored by Tel Aviv-Swinburne Research Collaboration Grant (2019).

The linkedness of cubical polytopes: the cube

- Bui, Hoa, Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo, Ugon, Julien

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2021**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Electronic Journal of Combinatorics Vol. 28, no. 3 (2021), p.**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**The paper is concerned with the linkedness of the graphs of cubical polytopes. A graph with at least 2k vertices is k-linked if, for every set of k disjoint pairs of vertices, there are k vertex-disjoint paths joining the vertices in the pairs. We say that a polytope is k-linked if its graph is k-linked. We establish that the d-dimensional cube is [(d + 1)/2]-linked, for every d ≠ 3; this is the maximum possible linkedness of a d-polytope. This result implies that, for every d ≥ 1, a cubical d-polytope is [d/2]-linked, which answers a question of Wotzlaw (Incidence graphs and unneighborly polytopes, Ph.D. thesis, 2009). Finally, we introduce the notion of strong linkedness, which is slightly stronger than that of linkedness. A graph G is strongly k-linked if it has at least 2k + 1 vertices and, for every vertex v of G, the subgraph G − v is k-linked. We show that cubical 4-polytopes are strongly 2-linked and that, for each d ≥ 1, d-dimensional cubes are strongly

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2021**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Electronic Journal of Combinatorics Vol. 28, no. 3 (2021), p.**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**The paper is concerned with the linkedness of the graphs of cubical polytopes. A graph with at least 2k vertices is k-linked if, for every set of k disjoint pairs of vertices, there are k vertex-disjoint paths joining the vertices in the pairs. We say that a polytope is k-linked if its graph is k-linked. We establish that the d-dimensional cube is [(d + 1)/2]-linked, for every d ≠ 3; this is the maximum possible linkedness of a d-polytope. This result implies that, for every d ≥ 1, a cubical d-polytope is [d/2]-linked, which answers a question of Wotzlaw (Incidence graphs and unneighborly polytopes, Ph.D. thesis, 2009). Finally, we introduce the notion of strong linkedness, which is slightly stronger than that of linkedness. A graph G is strongly k-linked if it has at least 2k + 1 vertices and, for every vertex v of G, the subgraph G − v is k-linked. We show that cubical 4-polytopes are strongly 2-linked and that, for each d ≥ 1, d-dimensional cubes are strongly

Almost simplicial polytopes : the lower and upper bound theorems

- Nevo, Eran, Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo, Ugon, Julien, Yost, David

**Authors:**Nevo, Eran , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien , Yost, David**Date:**2020**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Canadian Journal of Mathematics Vol. 72, no. 2 (2020), p. 537-556. http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**We study -vertex -dimensional polytopes with at most one nonsimplex facet with, say, vertices, called almost simplicial polytopes. We provide tight lower and upper bound theorems for these polytopes as functions of, and, thus generalizing the classical Lower Bound Theorem by Barnette and the Upper Bound Theorem by McMullen, which treat the case where s = 0. We characterize the minimizers and provide examples of maximizers for any. Our construction of maximizers is a generalization of cyclic polytopes, based on a suitable variation of the moment curve, and is of independent interest. © 2018 Canadian Mathematical Society.

**Authors:**Nevo, Eran , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien , Yost, David**Date:**2020**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Canadian Journal of Mathematics Vol. 72, no. 2 (2020), p. 537-556. http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**We study -vertex -dimensional polytopes with at most one nonsimplex facet with, say, vertices, called almost simplicial polytopes. We provide tight lower and upper bound theorems for these polytopes as functions of, and, thus generalizing the classical Lower Bound Theorem by Barnette and the Upper Bound Theorem by McMullen, which treat the case where s = 0. We characterize the minimizers and provide examples of maximizers for any. Our construction of maximizers is a generalization of cyclic polytopes, based on a suitable variation of the moment curve, and is of independent interest. © 2018 Canadian Mathematical Society.

- Crouzeix, Jean-Pierre, Sukhorukova, Nadezda, Ugon, Julien

**Authors:**Crouzeix, Jean-Pierre , Sukhorukova, Nadezda , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2020**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Set-Valued and Variational Analysis Vol. 28, no. 1 (2020), p. 123-147. http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**One of the purposes in this paper is to provide a better understanding of the alternance property which occurs in Chebyshev polynomial approximation and continuous piecewise polynomial approximation problems. In the first part of this paper, we prove that alternating sequences of any continuous function are finite in any given segment and then propose an original approach to obtain new proofs of the well known necessary and sufficient optimality conditions. There are two main advantages of this approach. First of all, the proofs are intuitive and easy to understand. Second, these proofs are constructive and therefore they lead to new alternation-based algorithms. In the second part of this paper, we develop new local optimality conditions for free knot polynomial spline approximation. The proofs for free knot approximation are relying on the techniques developed in the first part of this paper. The piecewise polynomials are required to be continuous on the approximation segment. © 2020, Springer Nature B.V.

Polytopes close to being simple

- Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo, Ugon, Julien, Yost, David

**Authors:**Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien , Yost, David**Date:**2020**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Discrete and Computational Geometry Vol. 64, no. 1 (2020), p. 200-215**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**It is known that polytopes with at most two nonsimple vertices are reconstructible from their graphs, and that d-polytopes with at most d- 2 nonsimple vertices are reconstructible from their 2-skeletons. Here we close the gap between 2 and d- 2 , showing that certain polytopes with more than two nonsimple vertices are reconstructible from their graphs. In particular, we prove that reconstructibility from graphs also holds for d-polytopes with d+ k vertices and at most d- k+ 3 nonsimple vertices, provided k

**Authors:**Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien , Yost, David**Date:**2020**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Discrete and Computational Geometry Vol. 64, no. 1 (2020), p. 200-215**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**It is known that polytopes with at most two nonsimple vertices are reconstructible from their graphs, and that d-polytopes with at most d- 2 nonsimple vertices are reconstructible from their 2-skeletons. Here we close the gap between 2 and d- 2 , showing that certain polytopes with more than two nonsimple vertices are reconstructible from their graphs. In particular, we prove that reconstructibility from graphs also holds for d-polytopes with d+ k vertices and at most d- k+ 3 nonsimple vertices, provided k

Schur functions for approximation problems

- Sukhorukova, Nadezda, Ugon, Julien, Yost, David

**Authors:**Sukhorukova, Nadezda , Ugon, Julien , Yost, David**Date:**2020**Type:**Text , Book chapter**Relation:**2018 Matrix Annals p. 331-337**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**In this paper we propose a new approach to least squares approximation problems. This approach is based on partitioning and Schur function. The nature of this approach is combinatorial, while most existing approaches are based on algebra and algebraic geometry. This problem has several practical applications. One of them is curve clustering. We use this application to illustrate the results.

Connectivity of cubical polytopes

- Bui, Hoa, Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo, Ugon, Julien

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2019**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Combinatorial Theory Series A Vol. 169, no. (Jan 2019), p. 21**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**A cubical polytope is a polytope with all its facets being combinatorially equivalent to cubes. We deal with the connectivity of the graphs of cubical polytopes. We first establish that, for any d >= 3, the graph of a cubical d-polytope with minimum degree 5 is min{delta, 2d - 2}-connected. Second, we show, for any d >= 4, that every minimum separator of cardinality at most 2d - 3 in such a graph consists of all the neighbours of some vertex and that removing the vertices of the separator from the graph leaves exactly two components, with one of them being the vertex itself. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2019**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Combinatorial Theory Series A Vol. 169, no. (Jan 2019), p. 21**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**A cubical polytope is a polytope with all its facets being combinatorially equivalent to cubes. We deal with the connectivity of the graphs of cubical polytopes. We first establish that, for any d >= 3, the graph of a cubical d-polytope with minimum degree 5 is min{delta, 2d - 2}-connected. Second, we show, for any d >= 4, that every minimum separator of cardinality at most 2d - 3 in such a graph consists of all the neighbours of some vertex and that removing the vertices of the separator from the graph leaves exactly two components, with one of them being the vertex itself. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Lower bound theorems for general polytopes

- Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo, Ugon, Julien, Yost, David

**Authors:**Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien , Yost, David**Date:**2019**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**European Journal of Combinatorics Vol. 79, no. (2019), p. 27-45**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**For a d-dimensional polytope with v vertices, d + 1 <= v <= 2d, we calculate precisely the minimum possible number of m-dimensional faces, when m = 1 or m >= 0.62d. This confirms a conjecture of Grunbaum, for these values of m. For v = 2d + 1, we solve the same problem when m = 1 or d - 2; the solution was already known for m = d - 1. In all these cases, we give a characterisation of the minimising polytopes. We also show that there are many gaps in the possible number of m-faces: for example, there is no polytope with 80 edges in dimension 10, and a polytope with 407 edges can have dimension at most 23.

**Authors:**Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien , Yost, David**Date:**2019**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**European Journal of Combinatorics Vol. 79, no. (2019), p. 27-45**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**For a d-dimensional polytope with v vertices, d + 1 <= v <= 2d, we calculate precisely the minimum possible number of m-dimensional faces, when m = 1 or m >= 0.62d. This confirms a conjecture of Grunbaum, for these values of m. For v = 2d + 1, we solve the same problem when m = 1 or d - 2; the solution was already known for m = d - 1. In all these cases, we give a characterisation of the minimising polytopes. We also show that there are many gaps in the possible number of m-faces: for example, there is no polytope with 80 edges in dimension 10, and a polytope with 407 edges can have dimension at most 23.

On the reconstruction of polytopes

- Doolittle, Joseph, Nevo, Eran, Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo, Ugon, Julien, Yost, David

**Authors:**Doolittle, Joseph , Nevo, Eran , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien , Yost, David**Date:**2019**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Discrete and Computational Geometry Vol. 61, no. 2 (2019), p. 285-302. http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**Blind and Mani, and later Kalai, showed that the face lattice of a simple polytope is determined by its graph, namely its 1-skeleton. Call a vertex of a d-polytope nonsimple if the number of edges incident to it is more than d. We show that (1) the face lattice of any d-polytope with at most two nonsimple vertices is determined by its 1-skeleton; (2) the face lattice of any d-polytope with at most d- 2 nonsimple vertices is determined by its 2-skeleton; and (3) for any d> 3 there are two d-polytopes with d- 1 nonsimple vertices, isomorphic (d- 3) -skeleta and nonisomorphic face lattices. In particular, the result (1) is best possible for 4-polytopes. © 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

**Authors:**Doolittle, Joseph , Nevo, Eran , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien , Yost, David**Date:**2019**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Discrete and Computational Geometry Vol. 61, no. 2 (2019), p. 285-302. http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**Blind and Mani, and later Kalai, showed that the face lattice of a simple polytope is determined by its graph, namely its 1-skeleton. Call a vertex of a d-polytope nonsimple if the number of edges incident to it is more than d. We show that (1) the face lattice of any d-polytope with at most two nonsimple vertices is determined by its 1-skeleton; (2) the face lattice of any d-polytope with at most d- 2 nonsimple vertices is determined by its 2-skeleton; and (3) for any d> 3 there are two d-polytopes with d- 1 nonsimple vertices, isomorphic (d- 3) -skeleta and nonisomorphic face lattices. In particular, the result (1) is best possible for 4-polytopes. © 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

Chebyshev multivariate polynomial approximation : alternance interpretation

- Sukhorukova, Nadezda, Ugon, Julien, Yost, David

**Authors:**Sukhorukova, Nadezda , Ugon, Julien , Yost, David**Date:**2018**Type:**Text , Book chapter**Relation:**2016 Matrix Annals p. 177-182**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**In this paper, we derive optimality conditions for Chebyshev approximation of multivariate functions. The theory of Chebyshev (uniform) approximation for univariate functions was developed in the late nineteenth and twentieth century. The optimality conditions are based on the notion of alternance (maximal deviation points with alternating deviation signs). It is not clear, however, how to extend the notion of alternance to the case of multivariate functions. There have been several attempts to extend the theory of Chebyshev approximation to the case of multivariate functions. We propose an alternative approach, which is based on the notion of convexity and nonsmooth analysis.

**Authors:**Sukhorukova, Nadezda , Ugon, Julien , Yost, David**Date:**2018**Type:**Text , Book chapter**Relation:**2016 Matrix Annals p. 177-182**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**In this paper, we derive optimality conditions for Chebyshev approximation of multivariate functions. The theory of Chebyshev (uniform) approximation for univariate functions was developed in the late nineteenth and twentieth century. The optimality conditions are based on the notion of alternance (maximal deviation points with alternating deviation signs). It is not clear, however, how to extend the notion of alternance to the case of multivariate functions. There have been several attempts to extend the theory of Chebyshev approximation to the case of multivariate functions. We propose an alternative approach, which is based on the notion of convexity and nonsmooth analysis.

**Authors:**Bagirov, Adil , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2018**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Optimization Methods and Software Vol. 33, no. 1 (2018), p. 194-219**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**The clusterwise linear regression problem is formulated as a nonsmooth nonconvex optimization problem using the squared regression error function. The objective function in this problem is represented as a difference of convex functions. Optimality conditions are derived, and an algorithm is designed based on such a representation. An incremental approach is proposed to generate starting solutions. The algorithm is tested on small to large data sets.

**Authors:**Bagirov, Adil , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2018**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Optimization Methods and Software Vol. 33, no. 1 (2018), p. 194-219**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP140103213**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**The clusterwise linear regression problem is formulated as a nonsmooth nonconvex optimization problem using the squared regression error function. The objective function in this problem is represented as a difference of convex functions. Optimality conditions are derived, and an algorithm is designed based on such a representation. An incremental approach is proposed to generate starting solutions. The algorithm is tested on small to large data sets. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

The excess degree of a polytope

- Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo, Ugon, Julien, Yost, David

**Authors:**Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien , Yost, David**Date:**2018**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Discrete Mathematics Vol. 32, no. 3 (2018), p. 2011-2046, http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**We define the excess degree \xi (P) of a d-polytope P as 2f1 - df0, where f0 and f1 denote the number of vertices and edges, respectively. This parameter measures how much P deviates from being simple. It turns out that the excess degree of a d-polytope does not take every natural number: the smallest possible values are 0 and d - 2, and the value d - 1 only occurs when d = 3 or 5. On the other hand, for fixed d, the number of values not taken by the excess degree is finite if d is odd, and the number of even values not taken by the excess degree is finite if d is even. The excess degree is then applied in three different settings. First, it is used to show that polytopes with small excess (i.e., \xi (P) < d) have a very particular structure: provided d ot = 5, either there is a unique nonsimple vertex, or every nonsimple vertex has degree d + 1. This implies that such polytopes behave in a similar manner to simple polytopes in terms of Minkowski decomposability: they are either decomposable or pyramidal, and their duals are always indecomposable. Second, we characterize completely the decomposable d-polytopes with 2d + 1 vertices (up to combinatorial equivalence). Third, all pairs (f0, f1), for which there exists a 5-polytope with f0 vertices and f1 edges, are determined.

**Authors:**Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien , Yost, David**Date:**2018**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**SIAM Journal on Discrete Mathematics Vol. 32, no. 3 (2018), p. 2011-2046, http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**We define the excess degree \xi (P) of a d-polytope P as 2f1 - df0, where f0 and f1 denote the number of vertices and edges, respectively. This parameter measures how much P deviates from being simple. It turns out that the excess degree of a d-polytope does not take every natural number: the smallest possible values are 0 and d - 2, and the value d - 1 only occurs when d = 3 or 5. On the other hand, for fixed d, the number of values not taken by the excess degree is finite if d is odd, and the number of even values not taken by the excess degree is finite if d is even. The excess degree is then applied in three different settings. First, it is used to show that polytopes with small excess (i.e., \xi (P) < d) have a very particular structure: provided d ot = 5, either there is a unique nonsimple vertex, or every nonsimple vertex has degree d + 1. This implies that such polytopes behave in a similar manner to simple polytopes in terms of Minkowski decomposability: they are either decomposable or pyramidal, and their duals are always indecomposable. Second, we characterize completely the decomposable d-polytopes with 2d + 1 vertices (up to combinatorial equivalence). Third, all pairs (f0, f1), for which there exists a 5-polytope with f0 vertices and f1 edges, are determined.

An Agile group aware process beyond CRISP-DM: A hospital data mining case study

- Sharma, Vishakha, Stranieri, Andrew, Ugon, Julien, Martin, Laura

**Authors:**Sharma, Vishakha , Stranieri, Andrew , Ugon, Julien , Martin, Laura**Date:**2017**Type:**Text , Conference proceedings**Relation:**ICCDA '17: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer and Data Analysis May 2017 p. 109-113**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**The CRISP-DM methodology is commonly used in data analytics exercises within an organisation to provide system and structure to data mining processes. However, in providing a rigorous framework, CRISP-DM overlooks two facets of data analytics in organisational contexts; data mining exercises are far more agile and subject to change than presumed in CRISP-DM and central decisions regarding the interpretation of patterns discovered and the direction of analytics exercises are typically not made by individuals but by committees or groups within an organisation. The current study provides a case study of data mining in a hospital setting and suggests how the agile nature of an analytics exercise and the group reasoning inherent in key decisions can be accommodated within a CRISP-DM methodology.

Characterization theorem for best polynomial spline approximation with free knots, variable degree and fixed tails

- Crouzeix, Jean-Pierre, Sukhorukova, Nadezda, Ugon, Julien

**Authors:**Crouzeix, Jean-Pierre , Sukhorukova, Nadezda , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2017**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications Vol. 172, no. 3 (2017), p. 950-964**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**In this paper, we derive a necessary condition for a best approximation by piecewise polynomial functions of varying degree from one interval to another. Based on these results, we obtain a characterization theorem for the polynomial splines with fixed tails, that is the value of the spline is fixed in one or more knots (external or internal). We apply nonsmooth nonconvex analysis to obtain this result, which is also a necessary and sufficient condition for inf-stationarity in the sense of Demyanov-Rubinov. This paper is an extension of a paper where similar conditions were obtained for free tails splines. The main results of this paper are essential for the development of a Remez-type algorithm for free knot spline approximation.

**Authors:**Crouzeix, Jean-Pierre , Sukhorukova, Nadezda , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2017**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications Vol. 172, no. 3 (2017), p. 950-964**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**In this paper, we derive a necessary condition for a best approximation by piecewise polynomial functions of varying degree from one interval to another. Based on these results, we obtain a characterization theorem for the polynomial splines with fixed tails, that is the value of the spline is fixed in one or more knots (external or internal). We apply nonsmooth nonconvex analysis to obtain this result, which is also a necessary and sufficient condition for inf-stationarity in the sense of Demyanov-Rubinov. This paper is an extension of a paper where similar conditions were obtained for free tails splines. The main results of this paper are essential for the development of a Remez-type algorithm for free knot spline approximation.

Pixel N-grams for mammographic lesion classification

- Kulkarni, Pradnya, Stranieri, Andrew, Ugon, Julien, Mittal, Manish, Kulkarni, Siddhivinayak

**Authors:**Kulkarni, Pradnya , Stranieri, Andrew , Ugon, Julien , Mittal, Manish , Kulkarni, Siddhivinayak**Date:**2017**Type:**Text , Conference proceedings**Relation:**2017 2nd International Conference on Communication Systems, Computing and IT Applications, CSCITA , Mumbai; 7th-8th April, 2017; published in CSCITA 2017 - Proceedings p. 107-111**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**Automated classification algorithms have been applied to breast cancer diagnosis in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy and turnover time. However, classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity could still be improved further. Moreover, reducing computational cost is another challenge as the number of images to be analyzed is typically large. In this paper, a novel Pixel N-gram approach inspired from character N-grams in the text retrieval context has been applied for mammographic lesion classification. The experiments on real world database demonstrate that the Pixel N-grams outperform the existing histogram as well as Haralick features with respect to classification accuracy as well as sensitivity. Effect of varying N and using various classifiers is also analyzed in this paper. Results show that optimum value of N is equal to 3 and MLP classifier performs better than SVM and KNN classifier using 3-gram features.

- Sukhorukova, Nadezda, Ugon, Julien

**Authors:**Sukhorukova, Nadezda , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications Vol. 171, no. 2 (2016), p. 536-549**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**In this paper, we derive conditions for best uniform approximation by fixed knots polynomial splines with weighting functions. The theory of Chebyshev approximation for fixed knots polynomial functions is very elegant and complete. Necessary and sufficient optimality conditions have been developed leading to efficient algorithms for constructing optimal spline approximations. The optimality conditions are based on the notion of alternance (maximal deviation points with alternating deviation signs). In this paper, we extend these results to the case when the model function is a product of fixed knots polynomial splines (whose parameters are subject to optimization) and other functions (whose parameters are predefined). This problem is nonsmooth, and therefore, we make use of convex and nonsmooth analysis to solve it.

Nonsmooth DC programming approach to the minimum sum-of-squares clustering problems

- Bagirov, Adil, Taheri, Sona, Ugon, Julien

**Authors:**Bagirov, Adil , Taheri, Sona , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Pattern Recognition Vol. 53, no. (2016), p. 12-24**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP140103213**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**This paper introduces an algorithm for solving the minimum sum-of-squares clustering problems using their difference of convex representations. A non-smooth non-convex optimization formulation of the clustering problem is used to design the algorithm. Characterizations of critical points, stationary points in the sense of generalized gradients and inf-stationary points of the clustering problem are given. The proposed algorithm is tested and compared with other clustering algorithms using large real world data sets. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Texture image classification using pixel N-grams

- Kulkarni, Pradnya, Stranieri, Andrew, Ugon, Julien

**Authors:**Kulkarni, Pradnya , Stranieri, Andrew , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Conference proceedings**Relation:**2016 IEEE International Conference on Signal and Image Processing (ICSIP); Beijing, China; 13-15 Aug, 2016 p. 137-141**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**Various statistical methods such as co-occurrence matrix, local binary patterns and spectral approaches such as Gabor filters have been used for generating global features for image classification. However, global image features fail to distinguish between local variations within an image. Bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) model do capture local variations in an image, but typically do not consider spatial relationships between the visual words. Here, a novel image representation ‘Pixel N-grams’, inspired from the character N-gram concept in text retrieval has been applied for texture classification purpose. Texture is an important property for image classification. Experiments on the benchmark texture database (UIUC) demonstrates that the overall classification accuracy resulting from Pixel N-gram approach (89.5%) is comparable with that achieved using BoVW approach (84.4%) with the added advantage of simplicity and reduced computational cost.

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