The rise of right-wing nationalist populism in our increasingly uncertain world poses serious threats to already marginalised groups such as women, migrants, asylum seekers, Indigenous people, and members of ethnic and minority communities. This chapter explores some definitions of right-wing nationalist populism and describes many of its features. We argue that the rise of right-wing populism poses a major challenge to social work’s practice foundations and professional stake in promoting human and democratic rights for all. If unaddressed, populist nationalism has the potential to erode even further the humanist fabric of our societies, making welfare contingent upon ethnicity, social status and level of economic ‘activation’. The challenge for social work is to oppose right-wing populist policies and practices wherever they manifest, and to promote effective, non-violent alternatives that can capture the popular political imaginary. While the threat to human rights-based social work is serious, it also harbours the possibility that the ensuing confrontations will renew and strengthen the profession’s commitment to non-violent, inclusive, socially just practice.