This chapter's objective is to move beyond standard understandings of places of pain and shame in the existing body of literature. It introduces a multidisciplinary heritage approach, focusing on the Kew Lunatic Asylum in Melbourne. This vast, impressive and prominent building highlights the level of government and public focus on benevolence, and benevolent incarceration, prevalent in Victorian era colonial society. When it opened, the Kew Asylum was among the largest such complexes in the world, its creators aspiring to bring forth a model institution that was not only an exemplar of colonial Victorian society but also of the British Empire.
Fighting wildland fire is a physically demanding occupation. Wildland firefighters need to be physically fit to work safely and productively. To determine whether personnel are fit for duty, many firefighting agencies employ physical competency tests, such as the pack hike test (PHT). The PHT involves a 4.83-km hike over level terrain carrying a 20.4-kg pack within a 45-min period. The PHT was devised to test the job readiness of US wildland firefighters but is also currently used by some fire agencies in Australia and Canada. This review discusses the history and development of the PHT with emphasis on the process of test validation. Research-based training advice for the PHT is given, as well as discussion of the risks associated with completing the PHT. Different versions and modifications to the PHT have emerged in recent years and these are discussed with regard to their validity. Finally, this review addresses the relevance and validity of the PHT for Australian and Canadian wildland firefighters. Statement of Relevance: This paper reviews the history, development and validity of the PHT, an internationally recognised and utilised wildland firefighter work capacity test. It is concluded that while the PHT has general content validity for US wildland firefighters, verification of its reliability, criterion and construct validity is still needed.