Entrepreneurs have been characterized according to recognizable types according to attendant concerns and motivations. Within the small business sector of ecotourism, entrepreneurs must balance competing goals pertaining to business objectives, lifestyle aspirations and, most importantly, sustainable environmental practices. This study reports how ecotourism eco-entrepreneurs perceive and manage these goals, consistent with concerns and motivations, based on semi-structured interviews of small business operators. The findings show that eco-entrepreneurs’ social and sustainable characteristics are critical to overcome financially challenging and complex operating environments whilst also delivering a desired lifestyle. As a business strategy, eco-entrepreneurs were found to deliberately maintain small, low-impact ecotourism operations consistent with identified eco- values. Looking forward, eco-entrepreneurs forecast imminent threats to the ecotourism sector through uncontrolled development and mass-tourism business access to sensitive natural areas. If unresolved, this process will replace eco-entrepreneurs in small ecotourism operators with traditional profit-oriented entrepreneurs delivering undifferentiated and high-impact nature-based tourism experiences.
Green human resource management contributes to an understanding of the role of human resource management (HRM) towards sustainability and environmental outcomes. This paper assesses employees’ environmental knowledge as well as self-perceptions of ability, motivation and opportunity (AMO) to practise green behaviours by operationalising the AMO framework towards a pro-environmental agenda. The study draws on a survey sample of 394 employees from five organisations in regional Australia. Key findings show that pro-environmental AMO are positively associated with green behaviours and that these are more prevalent at home than in the workplace. Further, line managers moderate the relationship between pro-environmental AMO and green behaviour although not the relationship between environmental knowledge and green behaviour. Such benchmark measurement informs HRM policies, practices and interventions and contributes to environmental management.