Exercise has been shown to have numerous health benefits including reductions in anxiety. Despite the known benefits of exercise, few people actually engaged in the recommended level of health activity. One major reason people report for their failure to exercise is a lack of time. The aims in this study were to determine 1) whether or not exercisers do report lower levels of anxiety than non-exercisers, 2) if non-exercisers have less discretionary time than exercisers and 3) to compare exercisers and non-exercisers on their time structure. One hundred and thirty-one volunteers (70% females) provided information on their typical exercise behavior, completed the anxiety subscale of the Profile of Mood States, and the Time Structure Questionnaire. Results indicate a tendency for non-exercising females to report higher scores on anxiety than all other participants, that exercisers were more focused on task completion, and that there is no difference in the discretionary time of exercisers and non-exercisers thus challenging the myth that lack of time prevents people from exercising. These results are discussed in terms of future programs.
Early attachment relationships are important, as the bonds made with significant others in childhood affect the emotional and physical health of individuals throughout life. The aim of this study was to explore how early Attachment relationships relate to levels of Resilience, and how these are related to levels of perceived stress and use of coping strategies. It was hypothesised that individuals with a secure attachment style would relate to higher levels of Resilience, and these variables in turn would correlate positively with proactive coping strategies and negatively with perceived stress. A cross-sectional sample of 196 volunteers (16 males, age M = 38.63 years, SD = 15.56 and 180 females, age M = 32.74 years, SD = 9.98) completed an online questionnaire assessing Attachment style, Resilience, perceived Stress, and coping styles. The results indicated a secure attachment style correlated with Resilience (r = .55). Both Secure attachment and Resilience correlated with greater use of proactive coping strategies (r > .24), and negatively with ratings of stress (r = -.20 and -.53, respectively). An exploratory analysis failed to support Resilience as a mediator of Attachment on Stress. Directions for future studies and implications of the findings are also discussed.