Recently, a shortened version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZPTI; Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999) was proposed as a “gold standard” (Sircova et al., 2014, p. 9). In this study, we examined the internal consistency and structural validity of this version of the ZPTI in samples of adolescents from the United Kingdom (N = 913) and the United States (N = 815), and adults from Australia (N = 667). Results provided support for the internal consistency of ZPTI scores, but structural validity analyses indicated poor fit and numerous problematic items. The findings call into question the use of scores on this shortened version of the ZTPI.
The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI; Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999) assesses five time-related constructs - Past Negative (PN), Past Positive (PP), Present Fatalistic (PF), Present Hedonistic (PF), and Future (F) - and is one of the most frequently used time measures in the extant literature. Versions of the ZTPI have been translated into a variety of languages, but the psychometric support for ZTPI scores remains contested. We examined the internal consistency, structural validity, and convergent validity of scores on a version of the ZTPI that consisted only of items that specifically referenced time constructs, the ZTPI-TP. Participants consisted of five samples of adolescents and adults from four countries: Australia (653 adults), Slovenia (425 adolescents and adults), the United Kingdom (913 adolescents; 455 adults), and the United States (815 adolescents). Structural validity analyses provided stronger support for ZTPI-TP scores than for ZTPI scores, and convergent validity evidence also provided support for ZTPI-TP scores. However, analyses revealed that the PF and PH factors were still problematic, especially with regard to factor coefficients and internal consistency estimates. We concluded that the ZTPI-TP can form the basis for a more robust version of the ZTPI.