The move toward online course facilitation in tertiary education has the intent of providing education at any time in any place to any person. However, the advent of blended learning and e-learning innovations has ostracised, marginalised or ignored those who cannot afford or who are unable to access the latest hardware and software to take advantage of these opportunities. The Web 2.0 age is an era of assumptions: assumptions of participation, literacy and democracy. Yet such inferences are based on the need for high-speed Internet connections, and the latest computers are standard requirements. Those without the ability to access these necessities are being indirectly marginalised by the universities, which is particularly ironic in an era of ‘widening participation’. This article reveals a few tears in the fabric of wiki-enabled democratic education. The authors argue that there is a community of students that are subjected to what Bourdieu termed symbolic violence. Digitisation in tertiary education is reinforcing what it has always been through its history – a haven of the wealthy and the advantaged.
Background: Hip arthroscopy is now commonly used to treat hip pain and pathology, including osteoarthritis (OA). Despite this, little is known about the effect of hip arthroscopy on outcomes of pain and function and progression to total hip arthroplasty (THA) in hip OA. Questions/purposes: This systematic review aimed to (1) determine pain and function outcomes after hip arthroscopy in people with hip OA; (2) compare the outcome after hip arthroscopy between people with and without hip OA; and (3) report the likelihood of progression to THA in patients with hip OA after hip arthroscopy. Methods: This review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement. The Downs and Black checklist was used for quality appraisal. Studies scoring positively on at least 50% of items were included in final analyses. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated where possible or study conclusions are presented. Results: Twenty-two studies were included in the final analyses. Methodological quality and followup time varied widely. Moderate to large SMDs were reported for people with and without hip OA; however, the positive effects of the intervention were smaller for people with hip OA. Greater severity of hip OA and older age each predicted more rapid progression to THA. Conclusions: Patients with hip OA report positive outcomes from hip arthroscopy, although observed positive effects may be inflated as a result of methodological limitations of the included studies. Patients with hip OA had inferior results compared with those who did not. Chondropathy severity and patient age were associated with a higher risk and more rapid progression to THA. High-quality comparative studies are required to confirm the effects of hip arthroscopy on symptoms and structural change in people with hip OA.