Integration of LIDAR data and orthoimage for automatic 3D building roof plane extraction

- Awrangjeb, Mohammad, Fraser, Clive, Lu, Guojun

**Authors:**Awrangjeb, Mohammad , Fraser, Clive , Lu, Guojun**Date:**2013**Type:**Text , Conference paper**Relation:**2013 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME)**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**Automatic 3D extraction of building roofs from remotely sensed data is important for many applications including city modeling. This paper proposes a new method for automatic 3D roof extraction through an effective integration of LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data and multispectral orthoimagery. Using the ground height from a DEM (Digital Elevation Model), the raw LIDAR points are separated into two groups. The first group contains the ground points that are exploited to constitute a `ground mask'. The second group contains the non-ground points which are segmented using an innovative image line guided segmentation technique to extract the roof planes. The image lines extracted from the grey-scale version of the orthoimage are classified into several classes such as `ground', `tree', `roof edge' and `roof ridge' using the ground mask and colour and texture information from the orthoimagery. During roof plane extraction the lines from the later two classes are used to fit roof planes to the neighbouring non-ground LIDAR points. Finally, a new rule-based procedure is applied to remove planes constructed on trees. Experimental results show that the proposed method successfully removes vegetation and offers high extraction rates.

Automatic building extraction from LIDAR data covering complex urban scenes

- Awrangjeb, Mohammad, Lu, Guojun, Fraser, Clive

**Authors:**Awrangjeb, Mohammad , Lu, Guojun , Fraser, Clive**Date:**2014**Type:**Text , Conference proceedings**Relation:**ISPRS Technical Commission III Symposium; Zurich, Switzerland; 5th-7th September 2014; published in The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Vol. XL-3, p. 25-32**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DE120101778**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**This paper presents a new method for segmentation of LIDAR point cloud data for automatic building extraction. Using the ground height from a DEM (Digital Elevation Model), the non-ground points (mainly buildings and trees) are separated from the ground points. Points on walls are removed from the set of non-ground points by applying the following two approaches: If a plane fitted at a point and its neighbourhood is perpendicular to a fictitious horizontal plane, then this point is designated as a wall point. When LIDAR points are projected on a dense grid, points within a narrow area close to an imaginary vertical line on the wall should fall into the same grid cell. If three or more points fall into the same cell, then the intermediate points are removed as wall points. The remaining non-ground points are then divided into clusters based on height and local neighbourhood. One or more clusters are initialised based on the maximum height of the points and then each cluster is extended by applying height and neighbourhood constraints. Planar roof segments are extracted from each cluster of points following a region-growing technique. Planes are initialised using coplanar points as seed points and then grown using plane compatibility tests. If the estimated height of a point is similar to its LIDAR generated height, or if its normal distance to a plane is within a predefined limit, then the point is added to the plane. Once all the planar segments are extracted, the common points between the neghbouring planes are assigned to the appropriate planes based on the plane intersection line, locality and the angle between the normal at a common point and the corresponding plane. A rule-based procedure is applied to remove tree planes which are small in size and randomly oriented. The neighbouring planes are then merged to obtain individual building boundaries, which are regularised based on long line segments. Experimental results on ISPRS benchmark data sets show that the proposed method offers higher building detection and roof plane extraction rates than many existing methods, especially in complex urban scenes.

**Authors:**Awrangjeb, Mohammad , Lu, Guojun , Fraser, Clive**Date:**2014**Type:**Text , Conference proceedings**Relation:**ISPRS Technical Commission III Symposium; Zurich, Switzerland; 5th-7th September 2014; published in The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Vol. XL-3, p. 25-32**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DE120101778**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**This paper presents a new method for segmentation of LIDAR point cloud data for automatic building extraction. Using the ground height from a DEM (Digital Elevation Model), the non-ground points (mainly buildings and trees) are separated from the ground points. Points on walls are removed from the set of non-ground points by applying the following two approaches: If a plane fitted at a point and its neighbourhood is perpendicular to a fictitious horizontal plane, then this point is designated as a wall point. When LIDAR points are projected on a dense grid, points within a narrow area close to an imaginary vertical line on the wall should fall into the same grid cell. If three or more points fall into the same cell, then the intermediate points are removed as wall points. The remaining non-ground points are then divided into clusters based on height and local neighbourhood. One or more clusters are initialised based on the maximum height of the points and then each cluster is extended by applying height and neighbourhood constraints. Planar roof segments are extracted from each cluster of points following a region-growing technique. Planes are initialised using coplanar points as seed points and then grown using plane compatibility tests. If the estimated height of a point is similar to its LIDAR generated height, or if its normal distance to a plane is within a predefined limit, then the point is added to the plane. Once all the planar segments are extracted, the common points between the neghbouring planes are assigned to the appropriate planes based on the plane intersection line, locality and the angle between the normal at a common point and the corresponding plane. A rule-based procedure is applied to remove tree planes which are small in size and randomly oriented. The neighbouring planes are then merged to obtain individual building boundaries, which are regularised based on long line segments. Experimental results on ISPRS benchmark data sets show that the proposed method offers higher building detection and roof plane extraction rates than many existing methods, especially in complex urban scenes.

Fusion of LiDAR data and multispectral imagery for effective building detection based on graph and connected component analysis

- Gilani, Alinaqi, Awrangjeb, Mohammad, Lu, Guojun

**Authors:**Gilani, Alinaqi , Awrangjeb, Mohammad , Lu, Guojun**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Conference proceedings**Full Text:****Description:**Building detection in complex scenes is a non-trivial exercise due to building shape variability, irregular terrain, shadows, and occlusion by highly dense vegetation. In this research, we present a graph based algorithm, which combines multispectral imagery and airborne LiDAR information to completely delineate the building boundaries in urban and densely vegetated area. In the first phase, LiDAR data is divided into two groups: ground and non-ground data, using ground height from a bare-earth DEM. A mask, known as the primary building mask, is generated from the non-ground LiDAR points where the black region represents the elevated area (buildings and trees), while the white region describes the ground (earth). The second phase begins with the process of Connected Component Analysis (CCA) where the number of objects present in the test scene are identified followed by initial boundary detection and labelling. Additionally, a graph from the connected components is generated, where each black pixel corresponds to a node. An edge of a unit distance is defined between a black pixel and a neighbouring black pixel, if any. An edge does not exist from a black pixel to a neighbouring white pixel, if any. This phenomenon produces a disconnected components graph, where each component represents a prospective building or a dense vegetation (a contiguous block of black pixels from the primary mask). In the third phase, a clustering process clusters the segmented lines, extracted from multispectral imagery, around the graph components, if possible. In the fourth step, NDVI, image entropy, and LiDAR data are utilised to discriminate between vegetation, buildings, and isolated building's occluded parts. Finally, the initially extracted building boundary is extended pixel-wise using NDVI, entropy, and LiDAR data to completely delineate the building and to maximise the boundary reach towards building edges. The proposed technique is evaluated using two Australian data sets: Aitkenvale and Hervey Bay, for object-based and pixel-based completeness, correctness, and quality. The proposed technique detects buildings larger than 50 m2 and 10 m2 in the Aitkenvale site with 100% and 91% accuracy, respectively, while in the Hervey Bay site it performs better with 100% accuracy for buildings larger than 10 m2 in area.

**Authors:**Gilani, Alinaqi , Awrangjeb, Mohammad , Lu, Guojun**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Conference proceedings**Full Text:****Description:**Building detection in complex scenes is a non-trivial exercise due to building shape variability, irregular terrain, shadows, and occlusion by highly dense vegetation. In this research, we present a graph based algorithm, which combines multispectral imagery and airborne LiDAR information to completely delineate the building boundaries in urban and densely vegetated area. In the first phase, LiDAR data is divided into two groups: ground and non-ground data, using ground height from a bare-earth DEM. A mask, known as the primary building mask, is generated from the non-ground LiDAR points where the black region represents the elevated area (buildings and trees), while the white region describes the ground (earth). The second phase begins with the process of Connected Component Analysis (CCA) where the number of objects present in the test scene are identified followed by initial boundary detection and labelling. Additionally, a graph from the connected components is generated, where each black pixel corresponds to a node. An edge of a unit distance is defined between a black pixel and a neighbouring black pixel, if any. An edge does not exist from a black pixel to a neighbouring white pixel, if any. This phenomenon produces a disconnected components graph, where each component represents a prospective building or a dense vegetation (a contiguous block of black pixels from the primary mask). In the third phase, a clustering process clusters the segmented lines, extracted from multispectral imagery, around the graph components, if possible. In the fourth step, NDVI, image entropy, and LiDAR data are utilised to discriminate between vegetation, buildings, and isolated building's occluded parts. Finally, the initially extracted building boundary is extended pixel-wise using NDVI, entropy, and LiDAR data to completely delineate the building and to maximise the boundary reach towards building edges. The proposed technique is evaluated using two Australian data sets: Aitkenvale and Hervey Bay, for object-based and pixel-based completeness, correctness, and quality. The proposed technique detects buildings larger than 50 m2 and 10 m2 in the Aitkenvale site with 100% and 91% accuracy, respectively, while in the Hervey Bay site it performs better with 100% accuracy for buildings larger than 10 m2 in area.

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