Starch nanoparticles prepared through high pressure homogenization and mini-emulsion cross-linking technology were successfully vacuum-freeze dried. Annealing process was introduced in the drying process and the cryoprotectants (lactose and mannitol) were used in the sample matrix. The effect of the annealing and cryoprotectants on the moisture content, glass transition temperature (T-g), amorphous/crystalline nature, particle size, morphology and the redispersibility of these nanoparticles was investigated. The residual moisture content of the nanoparticles was 4-9% (w/w) and it was lower in samples which were unannealed and contained cryoprotectants. Mannitol as cryprotectant resulted into starch nanoparticles with uniform spherical shape. The T-g of these nanoparticles varied from 52 degrees C to 57 degrees C and the difference was due to annealing and cryoprotectants. The annealing process and the presence of cryoprotectant did not hugely affect the X-ray diffraction pattern and FT-IR spectra which revealed the fully cross-linked and amorphous glassy state of starch nanoparticles. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The effect of addition of NaCl on rheological properties of suspensions containing vacuum freeze dried starch nanoparticles was studied. These starch nanoparticles were produced through high pressure homogenization and emulsion cross-linking technique. Rheological properties such as continuous shear viscosity, storage and loss moduli and creep-recovery were measured. The presence of NaCl at concentration (5-15%, w/v) increased viscosity marginally (p > 0.05) while at 20% (w/v) it significantly (p < 0.05) increased viscosity. The presence of NaCl enhanced heat stability and weakened gelling capacity of suspensions. NaCl concentration below 15% (w/v) marginally (p > 0.05) increased the storage and loss moduli of suspensions. At 20% (w/v), NaCl increased both moduli significantly (p < 0.05) within frequency range tested (0.1-10 rad/s). Creep-recovery behavior was affected by NaCl and recovery rate was the highest (98.6%) at 20% (w/v) NaCl. The Cross, Power Law and Burgers' models followed experimental shear viscosity, storage and loss moduli and creep-recovery data reasonably well ((R