Many nursing scholars have examined the negative effects of rituals in nursing practice, and have argued for nurses to abolish these ritual practices; however, rituals remain resilient. There must be reasons that nurses are keeping these rituals alive. This study aimed to explore the meanings of the 'morning tea break ritual' to a group of nurses in a medical ward. The study employed an ethnographic methodology and found that the morning tea break ritual provided time, space and an environment where nurses can ventilate their feelings and gain each other's support. Thus, the morning tea break ritual has positive contribution to nurses' work and both nurses and patients are the beneficiaries of this ritual act.
Aims and objectives. To identify the effect of music on preprocedure anxiety levels of Hong Kong Chinese patients undergoing day procedures in a local community based hospital. Design. Pre and post-test quasi experimental design with non-random assignment. Method. A total of 113 participants were assigned to the control group or intervention group depending on the day of their procedure. Participants' anxiety levels were measured objectively by comparing their vital signs and subjectively by the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Scale. Participants' physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse and respiration) and State Trait Anxiety Scale were measured at two time periods. The control group undertook the usual relaxing activities provided in the waiting room compared with the intervention group who listened to music of their own choice in reclining chairs while waiting for the procedure. Results. The physiological parameters for both the control and intervention groups dropped significantly during the waiting period, however, only the intervention group had a significant reduction in reported anxiety levels. Conclusions. These results suggest that providing self-selected music to day procedure patients in the preprocedure period assists in the reduction of physiological parameters and anxiety, yet, a relaxing environment can assist in the reduction of physiological parameters. Relevance to clinical practice. The administration of self-selected music to day procedure patients in the preprocedure period can be effective in the reduction of physiological parameters and anxiety.