A probe tack test has been used for the in situ characterization of the surface stickiness of hemispherical drops with an initial radius of 3.5 mm while drying. Surface stickiness of drops of fructose and maltodextrin solutions dried at 63degreesC and 95degreesC was determined. The effect of addition of maltodextrin on fructose solution-was studied with fructose/maltodextrin solid mass ratios of 4: 1, 1: 1, and 1:4. Pure fructose solutions remained completely sticky and failed cohesively even when their moisture approached zero. Shortly after the start of drying, the surface of the maltodextrin drops formed a skin, which rapidly grew in thickness. Subsequently the drop surface became completely nonsticky probably due to transformation of outer layers into a glassy material. Addition of malto,dextrin significantly altered the surface stickiness of drops of fructose solutions, demonstrating its use as an effective drying aid.
Drying kinetics of low molecular weight sugars such as fructose, glucose, sucrose and organic acid such as citric acid and high molecular weight carbohydrate such as maltodextrin (DE 6) were determined experimentally using single drop drying experiments as well as predicted numerically by solving the mass and heat transfer equations. The predicted moisture and temperature histories agreed with the experimental ones within 6% average relative (absolute) error and average difference of +/- 1degreesC, respectively. The stickiness histories of these drops were determined experimentally and predicted numerically based on the glass transition temperature (T-g) of surface layer. The model predicted the experimental observations with good accuracy. A nonsticky regime for these materials during spray drying is proposed by simulating a drop, initially 120 mum in diameter, in a spray drying environment.