High amylose starch–glycerol (HAG) films were produced incorporating beeswax, candelilla wax and carnauba wax in the presence and absence of Tween-80 in order to determine the distribution of wax in the films during the film formation process. The distribution of these waxes within the film was studied using Synchrotron based Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (S-FTIR) which provided 2D mapping along the thickness of the film. The incorporation of 5% and 10% wax in HAG films produced randomly distributed wax or wax-rich domains, respectively, within these films. Consequently, the addition of these waxes to HAG increased the surface roughness and hydrophobicity of these films. The addition of Tween-80 caused variations in wax-rich bands within the films. The HAG + carnauba wax + Tween-80 films exhibited domed wax-rich domains displayed with high integrated CH2 absorption value at the interior of the films, rougher surface and higher contact angle values than the other films. The S-FTIR 2D images indicated that the distribution of wax in starch–wax films correlated with the roughness and hydrophobicity of the starch–wax films.
The film forming behaviour and hydrophobicity of high amylose (HA) starch in the presence of three different natural waxes (beeswax, candelilla wax and carnauba wax) were studied in the presence and absence of Tween-80. The HA starch:glycerol (G) ratio was maintained at 80:20 (on dry solid basis) and the concentration of wax was varied from 5% and 10% (w/w). The melted wax samples were homogenized with HAG dispersion with or without Tween-80 and the films were prepared by solution casting. The hydrophobicity and water-barrier properties in these films were determined by using contact angle (CA), water vapour permeability (K