BACKGROUND: It is known that some people can, and do, sustain >1 injury over a playing season. However, there is currently little high-quality epidemiological evidence about the risk of, and relationships between, multiple and subsequent injuries. PURPOSE: To describe the subsequent injuries sustained by Australian Football League (AFL) players over 1 season, including their most common injury diagnoses. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Within-player linked injury data on all date-ordered match-loss injuries sustained by AFL players during 1 full season were obtained. The total number of injuries per player was determined, and in those with >1 injury, the Subsequent Injury Classification (SIC) model was used to code all subsequent injuries based on their Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) codes and the dates of injury. RESULTS: There were 860 newly recorded injuries in 543 players; 247 players (45.5%) sustained >/=1 subsequent injuries after an earlier injury, with 317 subsequent injuries (36.9% of all injuries) recorded overall. A subsequent injury generally occurred to a different body region and was therefore superficially unrelated to an index injury. However, 32.2% of all subsequent injuries were related to a previous injury in the same season. Hamstring injuries were the most common subsequent injury. The mean time between injuries decreased with an increasing number of subsequent injuries. CONCLUSION: When relationships between injuries are taken into account, there is a high level of subsequent (and multiple) injuries leading to missed games in an elite athlete group.
Background: Injuries are common in rugby sevens, but studies to date have been limited to short, noncontinuous periods and reporting of match injuries only. Purpose: To report the injury incidence rate (IIR), severity, and burden of injuries sustained by men and women in the Australian rugby sevens program and to provide the first longitudinal investigation of subsequent injury occurrence in rugby sevens looking beyond tournament injuries only. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Ninety international rugby sevens players (55 men and 35 women) were prospectively followed over 2 consecutive seasons (2015-2016 and 2016-2017). All medical attention injuries were reported irrespective of time loss. Individual exposure in terms of minutes, distance, and high-speed distance was captured for each player for matches and on-field training, with the use of global positioning system devices. The IIR and injury burden (IIR × days lost to injury) were calculated per 1000 player-hours, and descriptive analyses were performed. Results: Seventy-three players (81.1%) sustained 365 injuries at an IIR of 43.2 per 1000 player-hours (95% CI, 43.0-43.3). As compared with male players, female players experienced a lower IIR (incidence rate ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.90-0.91). Female players also sustained a higher proportion of injuries to the trunk region (relative risk, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.28-2.40) but a lower number to the head/neck region (relative risk, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.93; P =.011). The majority (80.7%) of subsequent injuries were of a different site and nature than previous injuries. A trend toward a reduced number of days, participation time, distance, and high-speed distance completed before the next injury was observed after successive injury occurrence. Conclusion: Female players have a lower IIR than male players, with variation of injury profiles observed between sexes. With a surveillance period of 2 years, subsequent injuries account for the majority of injuries sustained in rugby sevens, and they are typically different from previous types of sustained injuries. After each successive injury, the risk profile for future injury occurrence appears to be altered, which warrants further investigation to inform injury prevention strategies in rugby sevens.