Individuals with developmental disabilities (DD) experience stigma, discrimination, and barriers, including access to appropriate health care, that restrict their ability to be equal participants in society. In this study, underlying contexts, assumptions, and ways of acting are investigated that perpetuate inequalities and pejorative treatment toward those with disabilities. Several nurse researchers and educators suggest specific content for, or approaches to, education about DD. Critical pedagogy that employs cultural competency and a disability studies' framework to guide curriculum and course development will allow assumptions underlying common health care practices that oppress and other people with disabilities to be exposed and changed.
Introduction and Aims Treatment of opioid dependence through opioid replacement therapy is widely recognised as effective. Nonetheless, while there has been a community-based program in the state of Victoria for over two decades, consumer experiences have received little attention. This study aimed to describe the experiences of opioid replacement therapy consumers living in rural and regional areas of the state. Design and Methods A qualitative design employed an interpretative phenomenological approach. Sixteen consumers were interviewed. Thematic analysis was conducted by the researchers to examine the phenomena of consumers ' experiences and findings were verified by a stakeholder group. Results Findings centred on themes of consumers ' experience of becoming recipients; consumer perceptions of pharmacists and pharmacy settings and psychosocial impacts on consumers. A majority of participants believed opioid replacement therapy brought increased normality to their life, however systemic and psychosocial barriers impacted on well-being. The pharmacy setting itself as a public dosing space commonly provoked feelings of stigma and discrimination among consumers. Other barriers prominently reported were restrictions on number of takeaways, cost of dispensing and lack of access to medical practitioners and allied supports. Discussion and Conclusions There were psychosocial impacts on opioid replacement therapy consumers relating to financial and social burdens, stigma and discrimination. Access to medical care and a choice of pharmacy appeared to be restricted in rural regions. The findings suggest a need to address, in particular, the financial and dispensing point burdens experienced by consumers to facilitate program retention.