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About extensions of the extremal principle

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Kruger, Alexander**Date:**2018**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Vietnam Journal of Mathematics Vol. 46, no. 2 (2018), p. 215-242**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP160100854**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**In this paper, after recalling and discussing the conventional extremality, local extremality, stationarity and approximate stationarity properties of collections of sets, and the corresponding (extended) extremal principle, we focus on extensions of these properties and the corresponding dual conditions with the goal to refine the main arguments used in this type of results, clarify the relationships between different extensions, and expand the applicability of the generalized separation results. We introduce and study new more universal concepts of relative extremality and stationarity and formulate the relative extended extremal principle. Among other things, certain stability of the relative approximate stationarity is proved. Some links are established between the relative extremality and stationarity properties of collections of sets and (the absence of) certain regularity, lower semicontinuity, and Lipschitz-like properties of set-valued mappings. © 2018, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Kruger, Alexander**Date:**2018**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Vietnam Journal of Mathematics Vol. 46, no. 2 (2018), p. 215-242**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP160100854**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**In this paper, after recalling and discussing the conventional extremality, local extremality, stationarity and approximate stationarity properties of collections of sets, and the corresponding (extended) extremal principle, we focus on extensions of these properties and the corresponding dual conditions with the goal to refine the main arguments used in this type of results, clarify the relationships between different extensions, and expand the applicability of the generalized separation results. We introduce and study new more universal concepts of relative extremality and stationarity and formulate the relative extended extremal principle. Among other things, certain stability of the relative approximate stationarity is proved. Some links are established between the relative extremality and stationarity properties of collections of sets and (the absence of) certain regularity, lower semicontinuity, and Lipschitz-like properties of set-valued mappings. © 2018, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

Characterizations of nonsmooth robustly quasiconvex functions

- Bui, Hoa, Khanh, Pham, Tran, Thi

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Khanh, Pham , Tran, Thi**Date:**2019**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications Vol. 180, no. 3 (2019), p. 775-786**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**Two criteria for the robust quasiconvexity of lower semicontinuous functions are established in terms of Fréchet subdifferentials in Asplund spaces. The first criterion extends to such spaces a result established by Barron et al. (Discrete Contin Dyn Syst Ser B 17:1693–1706, 2012). The second criterion is totally new even if it is applied to lower semicontinuous functions on finite-dimensional spaces. © 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Khanh, Pham , Tran, Thi**Date:**2019**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications Vol. 180, no. 3 (2019), p. 775-786**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**Two criteria for the robust quasiconvexity of lower semicontinuous functions are established in terms of Fréchet subdifferentials in Asplund spaces. The first criterion extends to such spaces a result established by Barron et al. (Discrete Contin Dyn Syst Ser B 17:1693–1706, 2012). The second criterion is totally new even if it is applied to lower semicontinuous functions on finite-dimensional spaces. © 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

Connectivity of cubical polytopes

- Bui, Hoa, Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo, Ugon, Julien

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2019**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Combinatorial Theory Series A Vol. 169, no. (Jan 2019), p. 21**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**A cubical polytope is a polytope with all its facets being combinatorially equivalent to cubes. We deal with the connectivity of the graphs of cubical polytopes. We first establish that, for any d >= 3, the graph of a cubical d-polytope with minimum degree 5 is min{delta, 2d - 2}-connected. Second, we show, for any d >= 4, that every minimum separator of cardinality at most 2d - 3 in such a graph consists of all the neighbours of some vertex and that removing the vertices of the separator from the graph leaves exactly two components, with one of them being the vertex itself. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2019**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Combinatorial Theory Series A Vol. 169, no. (Jan 2019), p. 21**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**A cubical polytope is a polytope with all its facets being combinatorially equivalent to cubes. We deal with the connectivity of the graphs of cubical polytopes. We first establish that, for any d >= 3, the graph of a cubical d-polytope with minimum degree 5 is min{delta, 2d - 2}-connected. Second, we show, for any d >= 4, that every minimum separator of cardinality at most 2d - 3 in such a graph consists of all the neighbours of some vertex and that removing the vertices of the separator from the graph leaves exactly two components, with one of them being the vertex itself. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Extremality and stationarity of collections of sets : metric, slope and normal cone characterisations

- Bui, Hoa

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa**Date:**2019**Type:**Text , Thesis , PhD**Full Text:****Description:**Variational analysis, a relatively new area of research in mathematics, has become one of the most powerful tools in nonsmooth optimisation and neighbouring areas. The extremal principle, a tool to substitute the conventional separation theorem in the general nonconvex environment, is a fundamental result in variational analysis. There have seen many attempts to generalise the conventional extremal principle in order to tackle certain optimisation models. Models involving collections of sets, initiated by the extremal principle, have proved their usefulness in analysis and optimisation, with non-intersection properties (or their absence) being at the core of many applications: recall the ubiquitous convex separation theorem, extremal principle, Dubovitskii Milyutin formalism and various transversality/regularity properties. We study elementary nonintersection properties of collections of sets, making the core of the conventional definitions of extremality and stationarity. In the setting of general Banach/Asplund spaces, we establish nonlinear primal (slope) and linear/nonlinear dual (generalised separation) characterisations of these non-intersection properties. We establish a series of consequences of our main results covering all known formulations of extremality/ stationarity and generalised separability properties. This research develops a universal theory, unifying all the current extensions of the extremal principle, providing new results and better understanding for the exquisite theory of variational analysis. This new study also results in direct solutions for many open questions and new future research directions in the fields of variational analysis and optimisation. Some new nonlinear characterisations of the conventional extremality/stationarity properties are obtained. For the first time, the intrinsic transversality property is characterised in primal space without involving normal cones. This characterisation brings a new perspective on intrinsic transversality. In the process, we thoroughly expose and classify all quantitative geometric and metric characterisations of transversality properties of collections of sets and regularity properties of set-valued mappings.**Description:**Doctor of Philosophy

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa**Date:**2019**Type:**Text , Thesis , PhD**Full Text:****Description:**Variational analysis, a relatively new area of research in mathematics, has become one of the most powerful tools in nonsmooth optimisation and neighbouring areas. The extremal principle, a tool to substitute the conventional separation theorem in the general nonconvex environment, is a fundamental result in variational analysis. There have seen many attempts to generalise the conventional extremal principle in order to tackle certain optimisation models. Models involving collections of sets, initiated by the extremal principle, have proved their usefulness in analysis and optimisation, with non-intersection properties (or their absence) being at the core of many applications: recall the ubiquitous convex separation theorem, extremal principle, Dubovitskii Milyutin formalism and various transversality/regularity properties. We study elementary nonintersection properties of collections of sets, making the core of the conventional definitions of extremality and stationarity. In the setting of general Banach/Asplund spaces, we establish nonlinear primal (slope) and linear/nonlinear dual (generalised separation) characterisations of these non-intersection properties. We establish a series of consequences of our main results covering all known formulations of extremality/ stationarity and generalised separability properties. This research develops a universal theory, unifying all the current extensions of the extremal principle, providing new results and better understanding for the exquisite theory of variational analysis. This new study also results in direct solutions for many open questions and new future research directions in the fields of variational analysis and optimisation. Some new nonlinear characterisations of the conventional extremality/stationarity properties are obtained. For the first time, the intrinsic transversality property is characterised in primal space without involving normal cones. This characterisation brings a new perspective on intrinsic transversality. In the process, we thoroughly expose and classify all quantitative geometric and metric characterisations of transversality properties of collections of sets and regularity properties of set-valued mappings.**Description:**Doctor of Philosophy

Extremality, stationarity and generalized separation of collections of sets

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Kruger, Alexander**Date:**2019**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications Vol. 182, no. 1 (2019), p. 211-264**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**The core arguments used in various proofs of the extremal principle and its extensions as well as in primal and dual characterizations of approximate stationarity and transversality of collections of sets are exposed, analysed and refined, leading to a unifying theory, encompassing all existing approaches to obtaining ‘extremal’ statements. For that, we examine and clarify quantitative relationships between the parameters involved in the respective definitions and statements. Some new characterizations of extremality properties are obtained.

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Kruger, Alexander**Date:**2019**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications Vol. 182, no. 1 (2019), p. 211-264**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**The core arguments used in various proofs of the extremal principle and its extensions as well as in primal and dual characterizations of approximate stationarity and transversality of collections of sets are exposed, analysed and refined, leading to a unifying theory, encompassing all existing approaches to obtaining ‘extremal’ statements. For that, we examine and clarify quantitative relationships between the parameters involved in the respective definitions and statements. Some new characterizations of extremality properties are obtained.

Geometric and metric characterizations of transversality properties

- Bui, Hoa, Cuong, Nguyen, Kruger, Alexander

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Cuong, Nguyen , Kruger, Alexander**Date:**2020**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Vietnam Journal of Mathematics Vol. 48, no. 2 (2020), p. 277-297**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**This paper continues the study of ‘good arrangements’ of collections of sets near a point in their intersection. We clarify quantitative relations between several geometric and metric characterizations of the transversality properties of collections of sets and the corresponding regularity properties of set-valued mappings. We expose all the parameters involved in the definitions and characterizations and establish relations between them. This allows us to classify the quantitative geometric and metric characterizations of transversality and regularity, and subdivide them into two groups with complete exact equivalences between the parameters within each group and clear relations between the values of the parameters in different groups. © 2020, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Cuong, Nguyen , Kruger, Alexander**Date:**2020**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Vietnam Journal of Mathematics Vol. 48, no. 2 (2020), p. 277-297**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**This paper continues the study of ‘good arrangements’ of collections of sets near a point in their intersection. We clarify quantitative relations between several geometric and metric characterizations of the transversality properties of collections of sets and the corresponding regularity properties of set-valued mappings. We expose all the parameters involved in the definitions and characterizations and establish relations between them. This allows us to classify the quantitative geometric and metric characterizations of transversality and regularity, and subdivide them into two groups with complete exact equivalences between the parameters within each group and clear relations between the values of the parameters in different groups. © 2020, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

Necessary conditions for non-intersection of collections of sets

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Kruger, Alexander**Date:**2022**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Optimization Vol. 71, no. 1 (2022), p. 165-196**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP160100854**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**This paper continues studies of non-intersection properties of finite collections of sets initiated 40 years ago by the extremal principle. We study elementary non-intersection properties of collections of sets, making the core of the conventional definitions of extremality and stationarity. In the setting of general Banach/Asplund spaces, we establish new primal (slope) and dual (generalized separation) necessary conditions for these non-intersection properties. The results are applied to convergence analysis of alternating projections. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Kruger, Alexander**Date:**2022**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Optimization Vol. 71, no. 1 (2022), p. 165-196**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP160100854**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**This paper continues studies of non-intersection properties of finite collections of sets initiated 40 years ago by the extremal principle. We study elementary non-intersection properties of collections of sets, making the core of the conventional definitions of extremality and stationarity. In the setting of general Banach/Asplund spaces, we establish new primal (slope) and dual (generalized separation) necessary conditions for these non-intersection properties. The results are applied to convergence analysis of alternating projections. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Some new characterizations of intrinsic transversality in hilbert spaces

- Thao, Nguyen, Bui, Hoa, Cuong, Nguyen, Verhaegen, Michel

**Authors:**Thao, Nguyen , Bui, Hoa , Cuong, Nguyen , Verhaegen, Michel**Date:**2020**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Set-Valued and Variational Analysis Vol. 28, no. 1 (2020), p. 5-39**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**Motivated by a number of questions concerning transversality-type properties of pairs of sets recently raised by Ioffe and Kruger, this paper reports several new characterizations of the intrinsic transversality property in Hilbert spaces. New results in terms of normal vectors clarify the picture of intrinsic transversality, its variants and sufficient conditions for subtransversality, and unify several of them. For the first time, intrinsic transversality is characterized by an equivalent condition which does not involve normal vectors. This characterization offers another perspective on intrinsic transversality. As a consequence, the obtained results allow us to answer a number of important questions about transversality-type properties. © 2020, The Author(s).

**Authors:**Thao, Nguyen , Bui, Hoa , Cuong, Nguyen , Verhaegen, Michel**Date:**2020**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Set-Valued and Variational Analysis Vol. 28, no. 1 (2020), p. 5-39**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**Motivated by a number of questions concerning transversality-type properties of pairs of sets recently raised by Ioffe and Kruger, this paper reports several new characterizations of the intrinsic transversality property in Hilbert spaces. New results in terms of normal vectors clarify the picture of intrinsic transversality, its variants and sufficient conditions for subtransversality, and unify several of them. For the first time, intrinsic transversality is characterized by an equivalent condition which does not involve normal vectors. This characterization offers another perspective on intrinsic transversality. As a consequence, the obtained results allow us to answer a number of important questions about transversality-type properties. © 2020, The Author(s).

The linkedness of cubical polytopes : beyond the cube

- Bui, Hoa, Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo, Ugon, Julien

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2024**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Discrete Mathematics Vol. 347, no. 3 (2024), p.**Relation:**https://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**A cubical polytope is a polytope with all its facets being combinatorially equivalent to cubes. The paper is concerned with the linkedness of the graphs of cubical polytopes. A graph with at least 2k vertices is k-linked if, for every set of k disjoint pairs of vertices, there are k vertex-disjoint paths joining the vertices in the pairs. We say that a polytope is k-linked if its graph is k-linked. In a previous paper [3] we proved that every cubical d-polytope is ⌊d/2⌋-linked. Here we strengthen this result by establishing the ⌊(d+1)/2⌋-linkedness of cubical d-polytopes, for every d≠3. A graph G is strongly k-linked if it has at least 2k+1 vertices and, for every vertex v of G, the subgraph G−v is k-linked. We say that a polytope is (strongly) k-linked if its graph is (strongly) k-linked. In this paper, we also prove that every cubical d-polytope is strongly ⌊d/2⌋-linked, for every d≠3. These results are best possible for this class of polytopes.**Description:**A cubical polytope is a polytope with all its facets being combinatorially equivalent to cubes. The paper is concerned with the linkedness of the graphs of cubical polytopes. A graph with at least 2k vertices is k-linked if, for every set of k disjoint pairs of vertices, there are k vertex-disjoint paths joining the vertices in the pairs. We say that a polytope is k-linked if its graph is k-linked. In a previous paper [3] we proved that every cubical d-polytope is

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2024**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Discrete Mathematics Vol. 347, no. 3 (2024), p.**Relation:**https://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**A cubical polytope is a polytope with all its facets being combinatorially equivalent to cubes. The paper is concerned with the linkedness of the graphs of cubical polytopes. A graph with at least 2k vertices is k-linked if, for every set of k disjoint pairs of vertices, there are k vertex-disjoint paths joining the vertices in the pairs. We say that a polytope is k-linked if its graph is k-linked. In a previous paper [3] we proved that every cubical d-polytope is ⌊d/2⌋-linked. Here we strengthen this result by establishing the ⌊(d+1)/2⌋-linkedness of cubical d-polytopes, for every d≠3. A graph G is strongly k-linked if it has at least 2k+1 vertices and, for every vertex v of G, the subgraph G−v is k-linked. We say that a polytope is (strongly) k-linked if its graph is (strongly) k-linked. In this paper, we also prove that every cubical d-polytope is strongly ⌊d/2⌋-linked, for every d≠3. These results are best possible for this class of polytopes.**Description:**A cubical polytope is a polytope with all its facets being combinatorially equivalent to cubes. The paper is concerned with the linkedness of the graphs of cubical polytopes. A graph with at least 2k vertices is k-linked if, for every set of k disjoint pairs of vertices, there are k vertex-disjoint paths joining the vertices in the pairs. We say that a polytope is k-linked if its graph is k-linked. In a previous paper [3] we proved that every cubical d-polytope is

The linkedness of cubical polytopes: the cube

- Bui, Hoa, Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo, Ugon, Julien

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2021**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Electronic Journal of Combinatorics Vol. 28, no. 3 (2021), p.**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**The paper is concerned with the linkedness of the graphs of cubical polytopes. A graph with at least 2k vertices is k-linked if, for every set of k disjoint pairs of vertices, there are k vertex-disjoint paths joining the vertices in the pairs. We say that a polytope is k-linked if its graph is k-linked. We establish that the d-dimensional cube is [(d + 1)/2]-linked, for every d ≠ 3; this is the maximum possible linkedness of a d-polytope. This result implies that, for every d ≥ 1, a cubical d-polytope is [d/2]-linked, which answers a question of Wotzlaw (Incidence graphs and unneighborly polytopes, Ph.D. thesis, 2009). Finally, we introduce the notion of strong linkedness, which is slightly stronger than that of linkedness. A graph G is strongly k-linked if it has at least 2k + 1 vertices and, for every vertex v of G, the subgraph G − v is k-linked. We show that cubical 4-polytopes are strongly 2-linked and that, for each d ≥ 1, d-dimensional cubes are strongly

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2021**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Electronic Journal of Combinatorics Vol. 28, no. 3 (2021), p.**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP180100602**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**The paper is concerned with the linkedness of the graphs of cubical polytopes. A graph with at least 2k vertices is k-linked if, for every set of k disjoint pairs of vertices, there are k vertex-disjoint paths joining the vertices in the pairs. We say that a polytope is k-linked if its graph is k-linked. We establish that the d-dimensional cube is [(d + 1)/2]-linked, for every d ≠ 3; this is the maximum possible linkedness of a d-polytope. This result implies that, for every d ≥ 1, a cubical d-polytope is [d/2]-linked, which answers a question of Wotzlaw (Incidence graphs and unneighborly polytopes, Ph.D. thesis, 2009). Finally, we introduce the notion of strong linkedness, which is slightly stronger than that of linkedness. A graph G is strongly k-linked if it has at least 2k + 1 vertices and, for every vertex v of G, the subgraph G − v is k-linked. We show that cubical 4-polytopes are strongly 2-linked and that, for each d ≥ 1, d-dimensional cubes are strongly

Variational analysis Down Under open problem session

- Bui, Hoa, Lindstrom, Scott, Roshchina, Vera

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Lindstrom, Scott , Roshchina, Vera**Date:**2019**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications Vol. 182, no. 1 (2019), p. 430-437**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**We state the problems discussed in the open problem session at Variational Analysis Down Under conference held in honour of Prof. Asen Dontchev on 19-21 February 2018 at Federation University Australia.

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Lindstrom, Scott , Roshchina, Vera**Date:**2019**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications Vol. 182, no. 1 (2019), p. 430-437**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**We state the problems discussed in the open problem session at Variational Analysis Down Under conference held in honour of Prof. Asen Dontchev on 19-21 February 2018 at Federation University Australia.

Zero duality gap conditions via abstract convexity

- Bui, Hoa, Burachik, Regina, Kruger, Alexander, Yost, David

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Burachik, Regina , Kruger, Alexander , Yost, David**Date:**2022**Type:**Journal article**Relation:**Optimization Vol. 71, no. 4 (2022), p. 811-847**Relation:**https://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP160100854**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**Using tools provided by the theory of abstract convexity, we extend conditions for zero duality gap to the context of non-convex and nonsmooth optimization. Mimicking the classical setting, an abstract convex function is the upper envelope of a family of abstract affine functions (being conventional vertical translations of the abstract linear functions). We establish new conditions for zero duality gap under no topological assumptions on the space of abstract linear functions. In particular, we prove that the zero duality gap property can be fully characterized in terms of an inclusion involving (abstract) (Formula presented.) -subdifferentials. This result is new even for the classical convex setting. Endowing the space of abstract linear functions with the topology of pointwise convergence, we extend several fundamental facts of functional/convex analysis. This includes (i) the classical Banach–Alaoglu–Bourbaki theorem (ii) the subdifferential sum rule, and (iii) a constraint qualification for zero duality gap which extends a fact established by Borwein, Burachik and Yao (2014) for the conventional convex case. As an application, we show with a specific example how our results can be exploited to show zero duality for a family of non-convex, non-differentiable problems. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

**Authors:**Bui, Hoa , Burachik, Regina , Kruger, Alexander , Yost, David**Date:**2022**Type:**Journal article**Relation:**Optimization Vol. 71, no. 4 (2022), p. 811-847**Relation:**https://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP160100854**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**Using tools provided by the theory of abstract convexity, we extend conditions for zero duality gap to the context of non-convex and nonsmooth optimization. Mimicking the classical setting, an abstract convex function is the upper envelope of a family of abstract affine functions (being conventional vertical translations of the abstract linear functions). We establish new conditions for zero duality gap under no topological assumptions on the space of abstract linear functions. In particular, we prove that the zero duality gap property can be fully characterized in terms of an inclusion involving (abstract) (Formula presented.) -subdifferentials. This result is new even for the classical convex setting. Endowing the space of abstract linear functions with the topology of pointwise convergence, we extend several fundamental facts of functional/convex analysis. This includes (i) the classical Banach–Alaoglu–Bourbaki theorem (ii) the subdifferential sum rule, and (iii) a constraint qualification for zero duality gap which extends a fact established by Borwein, Burachik and Yao (2014) for the conventional convex case. As an application, we show with a specific example how our results can be exploited to show zero duality for a family of non-convex, non-differentiable problems. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

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