The surface tension of freshly created food protein powder isolates was measured in aqueous solutions as a function of concentration, hydrolysis, and temperature. The surface tension of the solutions was measured immediately to best predict their surface-active behavior in a spray-drying scenario, where instantaneous values are more relevant than equilibrium surface tension measurements. Whole whey protein, hydrolyzed whey proteins (degrees of hydrolysis of 4, 9.5, 12, 17, and 20.2%), soy protein, pea protein isolates, and gelatin powders were diluted in a range of concentrations (0.04-2 g/L) and their surface tension values were reported at 23 +/- 1 degrees C. It was found that at higher concentrations hydrolyzed whey proteins at degrees of hydrolysis of 9.5 and 12%, and soy protein isolates in particular, showed excellent surface activity (shown through a decrease in surface tension) compared to nonhydrolyzed whey protein and gelatin. When comparing the influence of the degree of hydrolysis of whey proteins, the reverse was observed at lower concentrations (0.04-0.1 g/L), with the nonhydrolyzed whey protein reducing surface tension values more effectively than their hydrolyzed counterparts. Additionally, the protein solutions (2 g/L) were maintained at higher temperatures of 40, 50, and 60 degrees C and the surface tension values were measured. There was a general improvement of surface activity of proteins indicated by the reduced surface tension of solutions at these temperatures compared with the pure water values. The protein solutions were also spray dried with maltodextrin (MD30) and the powder particle surface composition and structures were analyzed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron micrography. There was a trend of correlation between the surface activities of protein in solution with that of the surface composition of protein found on the powder particles. However, there were morphological indicators that corresponded well to the amount of protein present on the surface.
To examine the effect of protein adsorption on the fat-water interface on the surface composition of spray-dried particles, whey, hydrolyzed whey, and soy protein isolate emulsions were prepared at three different protein to fat ratios of 1:1, 1:5, and 1:10 and spray dried. Non-hydrolyzed whey protein isolate (WPI) and the more hydrolyzed whey protein solutions at 20.2% degree of hydrolysis (DH) had significantly lower surface tension values with fat than without fat. The correlation between the reduction of surface tension value of an emulsion and the increase in protein surface composition of powder particles was observed for WPI and HWP406 but was not observed for the other protein isolate types. It was clear that the spray-dried emulsions had fat as the dominant component on the surface of the powder particles and that the amount of protein on the surface became severely depressed at higher fat addition levels. In terms of its powder morphology, the unique powder structures such as the indentations and folds usually found on the surface of protein containing powders were not evident because they were compromised by the presence of high surface fat. The powder with higher surface fat had more crumpled particle structures and dimpled surfaces.