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3Mohebi, Ehsan
3Taheri, Sona
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1Gondal, Iqbal
1Jelinek, Herbert
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1Karmitsa, Napsu
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51702 Cognitive Science
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30906 Electrical and Electronic Engineering
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20802 Computation Theory and Mathematics
20806 Information Systems
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2SOM learning algorithm
2Self organizing maps
10103 Numerical and Computational Mathematics
10899 Other Information and Computing Sciences
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Constrained self organizing maps for data clusters visualization

- Mohebi, Ehsan, Bagirov, Adil

**Authors:**Mohebi, Ehsan , Bagirov, Adil**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Neural Processing Letters Vol. 43, no. 3 (2016), p. 849-869**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**High dimensional data visualization is one of the main tasks in the field of data mining and pattern recognition. The self organizing maps (SOM) is one of the topology visualizing tool that contains a set of neurons that gradually adapt to input data space by competitive learning and form clusters. The topology preservation of the SOM strongly depends on the learning process. Due to this limitation one cannot guarantee the convergence of the SOM in data sets with clusters of arbitrary shape. In this paper, we introduce Constrained SOM (CSOM), the new version of the SOM by modifying the learning algorithm. The idea is to introduce an adaptive constraint parameter to the learning process to improve the topology preservation and mapping quality of the basic SOM. The computational complexity of the CSOM is less than those with the SOM. The proposed algorithm is compared with similar topology preservation algorithms and the numerical results on eight small to large real-world data sets demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Diagnostic with incomplete nominal/discrete data

- Jelinek, Herbert, Yatsko, Andrew, Stranieri, Andrew, Venkatraman, Sitalakshmi, Bagirov, Adil

**Authors:**Jelinek, Herbert , Yatsko, Andrew , Stranieri, Andrew , Venkatraman, Sitalakshmi , Bagirov, Adil**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Artificial Intelligence Research Vol. 4, no. 1 (2015), p. 22-35**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**Missing values may be present in data without undermining its use for diagnostic / classification purposes but compromise application of readily available software. Surrogate entries can remedy the situation, although the outcome is generally unknown. Discretization of continuous attributes renders all data nominal and is helpful in dealing with missing values; particularly, no special handling is required for different attribute types. A number of classifiers exist or can be reformulated for this representation. Some classifiers can be reinvented as data completion methods. In this work the Decision Tree, Nearest Neighbour, and Naive Bayesian methods are demonstrated to have the required aptness. An approach is implemented whereby the entered missing values are not necessarily a close match of the true data; however, they intend to cause the least hindrance for classification. The proposed techniques find their application particularly in medical diagnostics. Where clinical data represents a number of related conditions, taking Cartesian product of class values of the underlying sub-problems allows narrowing down of the selection of missing value substitutes. Real-world data examples, some publically available, are enlisted for testing. The proposed and benchmark methods are compared by classifying the data before and after missing value imputation, indicating a significant improvement.

**Authors:**Jelinek, Herbert , Yatsko, Andrew , Stranieri, Andrew , Venkatraman, Sitalakshmi , Bagirov, Adil**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Artificial Intelligence Research Vol. 4, no. 1 (2015), p. 22-35**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**Missing values may be present in data without undermining its use for diagnostic / classification purposes but compromise application of readily available software. Surrogate entries can remedy the situation, although the outcome is generally unknown. Discretization of continuous attributes renders all data nominal and is helpful in dealing with missing values; particularly, no special handling is required for different attribute types. A number of classifiers exist or can be reformulated for this representation. Some classifiers can be reinvented as data completion methods. In this work the Decision Tree, Nearest Neighbour, and Naive Bayesian methods are demonstrated to have the required aptness. An approach is implemented whereby the entered missing values are not necessarily a close match of the true data; however, they intend to cause the least hindrance for classification. The proposed techniques find their application particularly in medical diagnostics. Where clinical data represents a number of related conditions, taking Cartesian product of class values of the underlying sub-problems allows narrowing down of the selection of missing value substitutes. Real-world data examples, some publically available, are enlisted for testing. The proposed and benchmark methods are compared by classifying the data before and after missing value imputation, indicating a significant improvement.

Clustering in large data sets with the limited memory bundle method

- Karmitsa, Napsu, Bagirov, Adil, Taheri, Sona

**Authors:**Karmitsa, Napsu , Bagirov, Adil , Taheri, Sona**Date:**2018**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Pattern Recognition Vol. 83, no. (2018), p. 245-259**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP140103213**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**The aim of this paper is to design an algorithm based on nonsmooth optimization techniques to solve the minimum sum-of-squares clustering problems in very large data sets. First, the clustering problem is formulated as a nonsmooth optimization problem. Then the limited memory bundle method [Haarala et al., 2007] is modified and combined with an incremental approach to design a new clustering algorithm. The algorithm is evaluated using real world data sets with both the large number of attributes and the large number of data points. It is also compared with some other optimization based clustering algorithms. The numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for clustering in very large data sets.

An algorithm for clustering using L1-norm based on hyperbolic smoothing technique

- Bagirov, Adil, Mohebi, Ehsan

**Authors:**Bagirov, Adil , Mohebi, Ehsan**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Computational Intelligence Vol. 32, no. 3 (2016), p. 439-457**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP140103213**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**Cluster analysis deals with the problem of organization of a collection of objects into clusters based on a similarity measure, which can be defined using various distance functions. The use of different similarity measures allows one to find different cluster structures in a data set. In this article, an algorithm is developed to solve clustering problems where the similarity measure is defined using the L1-norm. The algorithm is designed using the nonsmooth optimization approach to the clustering problem. Smoothing techniques are applied to smooth both the clustering function and the L1-norm. The algorithm computes clusters sequentially and finds global or near global solutions to the clustering problem. Results of numerical experiments using 12 real-world data sets are reported, and the proposed algorithm is compared with two other clustering algorithms. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Optimization based clustering algorithms for authorship analysis of phishing emails

- Seifollahi, Sattar, Bagirov, Adil, Layton, Robert, Gondal, Iqbal

**Authors:**Seifollahi, Sattar , Bagirov, Adil , Layton, Robert , Gondal, Iqbal**Date:**2017**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Neural Processing Letters Vol. 46, no. 2 (2017), p. 411-425**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP140103213**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**Phishing has given attackers power to masquerade as legitimate users of organizations, such as banks, to scam money and private information from victims. Phishing is so widespread that combating the phishing attacks could overwhelm the victim organization. It is important to group the phishing attacks to formulate effective defence mechanism. In this paper, we use clustering methods to analyze and characterize phishing emails and perform their relative attribution. Emails are first tokenized to a bag-of-word space and, then, transformed to a numeric vector space using frequencies of words in documents. Wordnet vocabulary is used to take effects of similar words into account and to reduce sparsity. The word similarity measure is combined with the term frequencies to introduce a novel text transformation into numeric features. To improve the accuracy, we apply inverse document frequency weighting, which gives higher weights to features used by fewer authors. The k-means and recently introduced three optimization based algorithms: MS-MGKM, INCA and DCClust are applied for clustering purposes. The optimization based algorithms indicate the existence of well separated clusters in the phishing emails dataset. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

- Ghosh, Ranadhir, Yearwood, John, Ghosh, Moumita, Bagirov, Adil

**Authors:**Ghosh, Ranadhir , Yearwood, John , Ghosh, Moumita , Bagirov, Adil**Date:**2006**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**International Journal of Neural Systems Vol. 16, no. 3 (2006), p. 201-213**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**In this paper we investigate a hybrid model based on the Discrete Gradient method and an evolutionary strategy for determining the weights in a feed forward artificial neural network. Also we discuss different variants for hybrid models using the Discrete Gradient method and an evolutionary strategy for determining the weights in a feed forward artificial neural network. The Discrete Gradient method has the advantage of being able to jump over many local minima and find very deep local minima. However, earlier research has shown that a good starting point for the discrete gradient method can improve the quality of the solution point. Evolutionary algorithms are best suited for global optimisation problems. Nevertheless they are cursed with longer training times and often unsuitable for real world application. For optimisation problems such as weight optimisation for ANNs in real world applications the dimensions are large and time complexity is critical. Hence the idea of a hybrid model can be a suitable option. In this paper we propose different fusion strategies for hybrid models combining the evolutionary strategy with the discrete gradient method to obtain an optimal solution much quicker. Three different fusion strategies are discussed: a linear hybrid model, an iterative hybrid model and a restricted local search hybrid model. Comparative results on a range of standard datasets are provided for different fusion hybrid models. © World Scientific Publishing Company.**Description:**C1**Description:**2003001712

Classification through incremental max-min separability

- Bagirov, Adil, Ugon, Julien, Webb, Dean, Karasozen, Bulent

**Authors:**Bagirov, Adil , Ugon, Julien , Webb, Dean , Karasozen, Bulent**Date:**2011**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Pattern Analysis and Applications Vol. 14, no. 2 (2011), p. 165-174**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP0666061**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**Piecewise linear functions can be used to approximate non-linear decision boundaries between pattern classes. Piecewise linear boundaries are known to provide efficient real-time classifiers. However, they require a long training time. Finding piecewise linear boundaries between sets is a difficult optimization problem. Most approaches use heuristics to avoid solving this problem, which may lead to suboptimal piecewise linear boundaries. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for globally training hyperplanes using an incremental approach. Such an approach allows one to find a near global minimizer of the classification error function and to compute as few hyperplanes as needed for separating sets. We apply this algorithm for solving supervised data classification problems and report the results of numerical experiments on real-world data sets. These results demonstrate that the new algorithm requires a reasonable training time and its test set accuracy is consistently good on most data sets compared with mainstream classifiers. © 2010 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

An L-2-Boosting Algorithm for Estimation of a Regression Function

- Bagirov, Adil, Clausen, Conny, Kohler, Michael

**Authors:**Bagirov, Adil , Clausen, Conny , Kohler, Michael**Date:**2010**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**IEEE Transactions on Information Theory Vol. 56, no. 3 (2010), p. 1417-1429**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**An L-2-boosting algorithm for estimation of a regression function from random design is presented, which consists of fitting repeatedly a function from a fixed nonlinear function space to the residuals of the data by least squares and by defining the estimate as a linear combination of the resulting least squares estimates. Splitting of the sample is used to decide after how many iterations of smoothing of the residuals the algorithm terminates. The rate of convergence of the algorithm is analyzed in case of an unbounded response variable. The method is used to fit a sum of maxima of minima of linear functions to a given data set, and is compared with other nonparametric regression estimates using simulated data.

**Authors:**Bagirov, Adil , Clausen, Conny , Kohler, Michael**Date:**2010**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**IEEE Transactions on Information Theory Vol. 56, no. 3 (2010), p. 1417-1429**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**An L-2-boosting algorithm for estimation of a regression function from random design is presented, which consists of fitting repeatedly a function from a fixed nonlinear function space to the residuals of the data by least squares and by defining the estimate as a linear combination of the resulting least squares estimates. Splitting of the sample is used to decide after how many iterations of smoothing of the residuals the algorithm terminates. The rate of convergence of the algorithm is analyzed in case of an unbounded response variable. The method is used to fit a sum of maxima of minima of linear functions to a given data set, and is compared with other nonparametric regression estimates using simulated data.

An incremental piecewise linear classifier based on polyhedral conic separation

- Ozturk, Gurkan, Bagirov, Adil, Kasimbeyli, Refail

**Authors:**Ozturk, Gurkan , Bagirov, Adil , Kasimbeyli, Refail**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Machine Learning Vol. 101, no. 1-3 (2015), p. 397-413**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP140103213**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**In this paper, a piecewise linear classifier based on polyhedral conic separation is developed. This classifier builds nonlinear boundaries between classes using polyhedral conic functions. Since the number of polyhedral conic functions separating classes is not known a priori, an incremental approach is proposed to build separating functions. These functions are found by minimizing an error function which is nonsmooth and nonconvex. A special procedure is proposed to generate starting points to minimize the error function and this procedure is based on the incremental approach. The discrete gradient method, which is a derivative-free method for nonsmooth optimization, is applied to minimize the error function starting from those points. The proposed classifier is applied to solve classification problems on 12 publicly available data sets and compared with some mainstream and piecewise linear classifiers. © 2014, The Author(s).

Nonsmooth DC programming approach to the minimum sum-of-squares clustering problems

- Bagirov, Adil, Taheri, Sona, Ugon, Julien

**Authors:**Bagirov, Adil , Taheri, Sona , Ugon, Julien**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Pattern Recognition Vol. 53, no. (2016), p. 12-24**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP140103213**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**This paper introduces an algorithm for solving the minimum sum-of-squares clustering problems using their difference of convex representations. A non-smooth non-convex optimization formulation of the clustering problem is used to design the algorithm. Characterizations of critical points, stationary points in the sense of generalized gradients and inf-stationary points of the clustering problem are given. The proposed algorithm is tested and compared with other clustering algorithms using large real world data sets. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

A difference of convex optimization algorithm for piecewise linear regression

- Bagirov, Adil, Taheri, Sona, Asadi, Soodabeh

**Authors:**Bagirov, Adil , Taheri, Sona , Asadi, Soodabeh**Date:**2019**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization Vol. 15, no. 2 (2019), p. 909-932**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP140103213**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**The problem of finding a continuous piecewise linear function approximating a regression function is considered. This problem is formulated as a nonconvex nonsmooth optimization problem where the objective function is represented as a difference of convex (DC) functions. Subdifferentials of DC components are computed and an algorithm is designed based on these subdifferentials to find piecewise linear functions. The algorithm is tested using some synthetic and real world data sets and compared with other regression algorithms.

Modified self-organising maps with a new topology and initialisation algorithm

- Mohebi, Ehsan, Bagirov, Adil

**Authors:**Mohebi, Ehsan , Bagirov, Adil**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence Vol. 27, no. 3 (2015), p. 351-372**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**Mapping quality of the self-organising maps (SOMs) is sensitive to the map topology and initialisation of neurons. In this article, in order to improve the convergence of the SOM, an algorithm based on split and merge of clusters to initialise neurons is introduced. The initialisation algorithm speeds up the learning process in large high-dimensional data sets. We also develop a topology based on this initialisation to optimise the vector quantisation error and topology preservation of the SOMs. Such an approach allows to find more accurate data visualisation and consequently clustering problem. The numerical results on eight small-to-large real-world data sets are reported to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm in the sense of vector quantisation, topology preservation and CPU time requirement. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

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