Automatic image annotation can be used to facilitate semantic search in large image databases. However, retrieval performance of the existing annotation schemes is far from the users’ expectation. In this paper, we propose a novel method to automatically annotate image through the rules generated by support vector machines and decision trees. In order to obtain the rules, we collect a set of training regions by image segmentation, feature extraction and discretization. We first employ a support vector machine as a preprocessing technique to refine the input training data and then use it to improve the rules generated by decision tree learning. The preprocessing can effectively deal with the similar regions in an image as well. Moreover, we integrate the original rules to the modified ones, so as to formulate the complete and effective annotation rules. We can translate an unknown image into text by this algorithm, and the proposed system can retrieve images queried by both images and keywords. Experiments are carried out in a standard Corel dataset and images collected from the Web to test the accuracy and robustness of the proposed system. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm can annotate and retrieve images more efficiently than traditional learning algorithms.
This paper proposes a new approach for image classification by combining pyramid match kernel (PMK) with spatial pyramid. Unlike the conventional spatial pyramid matching (SPM) approach which only uses a single-resolution feature vector to represent an image, we use a multi-resolution feature vector to represent an image for SPM. We then calculate the match scores at each resolution of SPM representation and finally compute the matching between two images by applying the concept of PMK using the match scores obtained from the multiple resolutions. Our experimental results show that the proposed combined pyramid matching achieves a significant improvement on classification performance.