The study examined whether the magnitude of same-sex-favouring implicit gender bias depends on individual differences in self-esteem and gender identity as theorized by Greenwald et al. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was used to measure implicit self-esteem, gender identity, and gender attitudes. Explicit self-esteem and gender identity were measured with questionnaires. The IAT revealed a strong automatic preference for female words in 34 female undergraduates but, surprisingly, no significant gender bias in 32 males. Individual levels of this gender bias were predicted in both sexes by IAT-derived implicit measures of self-esteem and gender identity, as well as by their interaction. Neither declared gender identity nor explicit self-esteem added to the prediction. The results are discussed in terms of balanced identity design and the potential influence of method effects on the findings. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
This paper presents a model of knowledge acquisition from definitions of data, information and knowledge. The model asserts that knowledge cannot exist outside of the human brain, and that any expression of the knowledge requires it to be transformed into information to be communicated outside of the brain. The model asserts that information is acquired through the sensors to the brain where it is processed with prior knowledge and that new knowledge can be created from the processing of information within the brain only. From a discussion of this model in the context of alternative viewpoints, it is concluded that the future focus for knowledge management should be toward human resource strategies that leverage human-intellectual capital within firms and for the dissemination and sharing of important information that promotes creativity and innovation within and between employees.