Distribution of metals and arsenic in soils of Central Victoria (Creswick-Ballarat), Australia
- Authors: Sultan, Khawar
- Date: 2007
- Type: Text , Journal article
- Relation: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Vol. 52, no. 3 (2007), p. 339-346
- Full Text:
- Description: A soil-sampling campaign was conducted to identify and map heavy-metal contamination in the Ballarat-Creswick area of Central Victoria, Australia, with respect to mining activities and natural background levels in soils. The distribution and concentrations of both lithology- (Fe, Al, and Mn) and pollution-sensitive elements (Zn, As, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Co) were documented in surface soils (approximately 0 to 10 cm, fraction <2 mm, n = 85). The total heavy-metal and metalloid contents in soils decreased in the order Fe >> Al >> Zn > Mn >> As > Pb > Cu ≈ Ni ≈ Cr > Co. Mean levels of Zn (273 mg/kg) and As (39 mg/kg) in soils were well above normal global ranges and could be of local importance as a source of contamination. Extreme soil levels of Ni, Cr, Pb, and Fe were found in old mining waste material and pointed to the anthropogenic influence on the environment. Most of the measured elements showed marked spatial variations except Co. As contents were significantly higher than the tolerable level (ANZECC (1992) guidelines), with values up to 395.8 mg/kg around the mine tailings site. Mn soil contents were strongly associated with Co and Ni contents in most soils. High Fe contents (average approximately 41,465 mg/kg) in soils developed on basalt bedrock were correlated with Zn contents (average 400 mg/kg), and it is highly likely that Fe-oxides serve as sinks for Zn under near-neutral soil pH (6.3) conditions. Between the two major bedrock lithologic units, Ordovician sediments and Tertiary basalt, a clear enrichment of metals was found in the latter that was reflected in high background levels of elements. Among the various size fractions, silt (average approximately 45.1%) dominated most of the soils. In general and with a few exceptions, the concentrations of measured elements did not show significant correlations to other measured soil parameters, e.g., clay, silt and sand size fractions, organic matter, soil pH, and cation exchange capacity. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
- Description: C1
- Description: 2003004769
Distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in soils and surface waters in Central Victoria (Ballarat, Creswick and Maldon)
- Authors: Sultan, Khawar
- Date: 2006
- Type: Text , Thesis , PhD
- Full Text:
- Description: "Three sampling campaigns were conducted in the Ballarat, Creswick and Maldon areas. The sampling area is part of the Golden Triangle region where significant gold-mining activities took place from the 1850s to the present day. [...] Locations were chosen to evaluate arsenic distribution in soils, surface waters and plants in different environments. Easy access to sampling locations allowed detailed scientific sampling, especially in the seasonality study. The different range of environments such as agricultural, state forest, mining, urban and rural provided an opportunity to compare the concentrations of arsenic and other elements in the study area. The study of the three selected areas combined provided further understanding of possible exposure and pathways through which arsenic can get into the food chain. "The objective of the study is to measure levels of heavy metals/metalloids in soils, water and plants in various environments, identify whether the heavy metals/metalloids are mobile and bioavailable and understand the importance of clays and oxide complexes in the fixation of metals."
- Description: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)