The need for speed: Timely prevention of the dispersal of noxious weeds in relief fodder using efficient sampling procedures
- Authors: Weller, Sandra , Florentine, Singarayer , Sillitoe, Jim , Grech, Charles , McLaren, David , Chauhan, Bhagirath
- Date: 2015
- Type: Text , Journal article
- Relation: Crop Protection Vol. 70, no. (2015), p. 21-27
- Full Text:
- Description: Invasive and noxious weeds are well known as a pervasive problem, imposing significant economic burdens on all areas of agriculture. Whilst there are multiple possible pathways of weed dispersal in this industry, of particular interest to this discussion is the unintended dispersal of weed seeds within fodder. During periods of drought or following natural disasters such as wild fire or flood, there arises the urgent need for 'relief' fodder to ensure survival and recovery of livestock. In emergency situations, relief fodder may be sourced from widely dispersed geographic regions, and some of these regions may be invaded by an extensive variety of weeds that are both exotic and detrimental to the intended destination for the fodder. Pasture hay is a common source of relief fodder and it typically consists of a mixture of grassy and broadleaf species that may include noxious weeds. When required urgently, pasture hay for relief fodder can be cut, baled, and transported over long distances in a short period of time, with little opportunity for prebaling inspection. It appears that, at the present time, there has been little effort towards rapid testing of bales, post-baling, for the presence of noxious weeds, as a measure to prevent dispersal of seeds. Published studies have relied on the analysis of relatively small numbers of bales, tested to destruction, in order to reveal seed species for identification and enumeration. The development of faster, more reliable, and non-destructive sampling methods is essential to increase the fodder industry's capacity to prevent the dispersal of noxious weeds to previously unaffected locales.
Influence of various environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of a noxious environmental weed: Green Galenia (Galenia pubescens)
- Authors: Mahmood, Ako , Florentine, Singarayer , Chauhan, Bhagirath , McLaren, David , Palmer, Grant , Wright, Wendy
- Date: 2016
- Type: Text , Journal article
- Relation: Weed Science Vol. 64, no. 3 (2016), p. 486-494
- Full Text: false
- Description: Green galenia is a South African woody prostrate perennial that was first recorded in Australia in the early 1900s and has since become a serious threat to indigenous temperate grasslands and surrounding agricultural areas. Laboratory and field based experiments were conducted to examine the effect of environmental factors on the germination and viability of green galenia seed. It was shown that green galenia was able to germinate over a broad range of temperatures, but short bursts (5 min) of high temperatures (80 C to 120 C replicating possible exposures to a fire) reduced seed germination. Seed germination was positively favored by light, declined rapidly in darkness, and decreased by >80% at a depth of only 0.5 cm in soil. Water stress greatly reduced seed germination (45% germination at osmotic potentials below -0.2 MPa). Germination was completely inhibited at water potentials of -0.4 to -1.0 MPa. This species is moderately tolerant to salinity, with over 50% of seeds germinating at low levels of salinity (60 mM NaCl), and moderate germination (49%) occurring at 120 mM NaCl, it can germinate well in both alkaline (pH 10-83%) and acidic (pH 4-80%) conditions. The results of this study have contributed to our understanding of the germination and emergence of green galenia, and this will assist in developing tools and strategies for the long term management of this noxious weed in Victoria and other parts of Australia. Nomenclature: Green galenia, Galenia pubescens (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Druce.