Happy feet in a hostile world? The future of penguins depends on proactive management of current and expected threats
- Authors: Ropert-Coudert, Yan , Chiaradia, Andre , Ainley, David , Barbosa, Andres , Boersma, Dee , Brasso, Rebecka , Dewar, Meagan , Ellenberg, Ursula , García-Borboroglu, Pablo , Emmerson, Loulse , Hickcox, Rachel , Jenouvrier, Stephanie , Kato, Akiko , McIntosh, Rebecca , Lewis, Phoebe , Ramírez, Francisco , Ruoppolo, Valeria , Ryan, Peter , Seddon, Philip , Sherley, Richard , Vanstreels, Ralph , Waller, Lauren , Woehler, Eric , Trathan, Phil
- Date: 2019
- Type: Text , Journal article
- Relation: Frontiers in Marine Science Vol. 6, no. May (2019), p. 1-23
- Full Text:
- Description: Penguins face a wide range of threats. Most observed population changes have been negative and have happened over the last 60 years. Today, populations of 11 penguin species are decreasing. Here we present a review that synthesizes details of threats faced by the world's 18 species of penguins. We discuss alterations to their environment at both breeding sites on land and at sea where they forage. The major drivers of change appear to be climate, and food web alterations by marine fisheries. In addition, we also consider other critical and/or emerging threats, namely human disturbance near nesting sites, pollution due to oil, plastics and chemicals such as mercury and persistent organic compounds. Finally, we assess the importance of emerging pathogens and diseases on the health of penguins. We suggest that in the context of climate change, habitat degradation, introduced exotic species and resource competition with fisheries, successful conservation outcomes will require new and unprecedented levels of science and advocacy. Successful conservation stories of penguin species across their geographical range have occurred where there has been concerted effort across local, national and international boundaries to implement effective conservation planning.
Continental-scale decreases in shorebird populations in Australia
- Authors: Clemens, Robert , Rogers, Danny , Hansen, Birgita , Gosbell, Ken , Minton, Clive , Straw, Phil , Bamford, Mike , Woehler, Eric , Milton, David , Weston, Michael , Venables, Bill , Weller, Dan , Hassell, Chris , Rutherford, Bill , Onton, Kimberly , Herrod, Ashley , Studds, Colin , Choi, Chi-Yeung , Dhanjal-Adams, Kiran , Murray, Nicholas , Skilleter, Gregory , Fuller, Richard
- Date: 2016
- Type: Text , Journal article
- Relation: Emu Vol. 116, no. 2 (2016), p. 119-135
- Full Text:
- Description: Decreases in shorebird populations are increasingly evident worldwide, especially in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (EAAF). To arrest these declines, it is important to understand the scale of both the problem and the solutions. We analysed an expansive Australian citizen-science dataset, spanning the period 1973 to 2014, to explore factors related to differences in trends among shorebird populations in wetlands throughout Australia. Of seven resident Australian shorebird species, the four inland species exhibited continental decreases, whereas the three coastal species did not. Decreases in inland resident shorebirds were related to changes in availability of water at non-tidal wetlands, suggesting that degradation of wetlands in Australia's interior is playing a role in these declines. For migratory shorebirds, the analyses revealed continental decreases in abundance in 12 of 19 species, and decreases in 17 of 19 in the southern half of Australia over the past 15 years. Many trends were strongly associated with continental gradients in latitude or longitude, suggesting some large-scale patterns in the decreases, with steeper declines often evident in southern Australia. After accounting for this effect, local variables did not explain variation in migratory shorebird trends between sites. Our results are consistent with other studies indicating that decreases in migratory shorebird populations in the EAAF are most likely being driven primarily by factors outside Australia. This reinforces the need for urgent overseas conservation actions. However, substantially heterogeneous trends within Australia, combined with declines of inland resident shorebirds indicate effective management of Australian shorebird habitat remains important. © BirdLife Australia 2016.