Impact of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with azithromycin-containing regimens on maternal nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic sensitivity of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus : A cross-sectional survey at delivery
- Authors: Unger, Holger , Aho, Celestine , Ome-Kaius, Maria , Wangnapi, Regina , Umbers, Alexandra , Jack, Wanda , Lafana, Alice , Michael, Audrey , Hanieh, Sarah , Siba, Peter , Mueller, Ivo , Greenhill, Andrew , Rogerson, Stephen
- Date: 2015
- Type: Text , Journal article
- Relation: Journal of Clinical Microbiology Vol. 53, no. 4 (2015), p. 1317-1323
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- Description: Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus azithromycin (AZ) (SPAZ) has the potential for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp), but its use could increase circulation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with severe pediatric infections. We evaluated the effect of monthly SPAZ-IPTp compared to a single course of SP plus chloroquine (SPCQ) on maternal nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus at delivery among 854 women participating in a randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea. Serotyping was performed, and antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated by disk diffusion and Etest. Potential risk factors for carriage were examined. Nasopharyngeal carriage at delivery of S. pneumoniae (SPAZ, 7.2% [30/418], versus SPCQ, 19.3% [84/436]; P < 0.001) and H. influenzae (2.9% [12/418] versus 6.0% [26/436], P = 0.028), but not S. aureus, was significantly reduced among women who had received SPAZ-IPTp. The number of macrolide-resistant pneumococcal isolates was small but increased in the SPAZ group (13.3% [4/30], versus SPCQ, 2.2% [2/91]; P = 0.033). The proportions of isolates with serotypes covered by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine were similar (SPAZ, 10.3% [3/29], versus SPCQ, 17.6% [16/91]; P = 0.352). Although macrolide-resistant isolates were rare, they were more commonly detected in women who had received SPAZ-IPTp, despite the significant reduction of maternal carriage of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae observed in this group. Future studies on SPAZ-IPTp should evaluate carriage and persistence of macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae and other pathogenic bacteria in both mothers and infants and assess the clinical significance of their circulation.
Wave 2 strains of atypical Vibrio cholerae El Tor caused the 2009-2011 cholera outbreak in Papua New Guinea
- Authors: Greenhill, Andrew , Mutreja, Ankur , Bulach, Dieter , Belousoff, Matthew , Jonduo, Marinjho , Collins, Deirdre , Kas, Monalisa , Wapling, Johanna , Seemann, Torsten , Lafana, Alice , Dougan, Gordon , Brown, Mark , Horwood, Paul
- Date: 2019
- Type: Text , Journal article
- Relation: Microbial genomics Vol. 5, no. 3 (2019), p. 1-5
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- Description: Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera, a globally important human disease for at least 200 years. In 2009-2011, the first recorded cholera outbreak in Papua New Guinea (PNG) occurred. We conducted genetic and phenotypic characterization of 21 isolates of V. cholerae, with whole-genome sequencing conducted on 2 representative isolates. The PNG outbreak was caused by an atypical El Tor strain harbouring a tandem repeat of the CTX prophage on chromosome II. Whole-genome sequence data, prophage structural analysis and the absence of the SXT integrative conjugative element was indicative that the PNG isolates were most closely related to strains previously isolated in South-East and East Asia with affiliations to global wave 2 strains. This finding suggests that the cholera outbreak in PNG was caused by an exotic (non-endemic) strain of V. cholerae that originated in South-East Asia.