Differential associations of hypoxia, sleep fragmentation, and depressive symptoms with cognitive dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea
- Authors: Alomri, Ridwan , Kennedy, Gerard , Wali, Siraj , Ahejaili, Faris , Robinson, Stephen
- Date: 2021
- Type: Text , Journal article
- Relation: Sleep Vol. 44, no. 4 (2021), p.
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- Description: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete cessation of breathing during sleep and increased effort to breathe. This study examined patients who underwent overnight polysomnographic studies in a major sleep laboratory in Saudi Arabia. The study aimed to determine the extent to which intermittent hypoxia, sleep disruption, and depressive symptoms are independently associated with cognitive impairments in OSA. In the sample of 90 participants, 14 had no OSA, 30 mild OSA, 23 moderate OSA, and 23 severe OSA. The findings revealed that hypoxia and sleep fragmentation are independently associated with impairments of sustained attention and reaction time (RT). Sleep fragmentation, but not hypoxia, was independently associated with impairments in visuospatial deficits. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with impairments in the domains of sustained attention, RT, visuospatial ability, and semantic and episodic autobiographical memories. Since the depressive symptoms are independent of hypoxia and sleep fragmentation, effective reversal of cognitive impairment in OSA may require treatment interventions that target each of these factors. © Sleep Research Society 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Association between cognitive dysfunction and nocturnal peaks of blood pressure estimated from pulse transit time in obstructive sleep apnoea
- Authors: Alomri, Ridwan , Kennedy, Gerard , Wali, Siraj , Alhejaili, Faris , Zelko, Matthew , Robinson, Stephen
- Date: 2022
- Type: Text , Journal article
- Relation: Sleep Medicine Vol. 90, no. (2022), p. 185-191
- Full Text: false
- Description: Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is characterised by recurrent episodes of partial or complete cessation of breathing during sleep and an increased effort to breathe. Patients with untreated OSA exhibit cognitive impairment that is only partly accounted for by hypoxia and sleep disruption, suggesting that other factors remain to be identified. OSA can involve repeated spikes of nocturnal blood pressure because of increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system during sleep. While high resting blood pressure is associated with cognitive dysfunction, it is not yet known whether peaks in nocturnal blood pressure are associated with cognitive impairment in OSA. Methods: A cohort of patients participated in overnight polysomnographic studies at a major sleep laboratory to investigate whether nocturnal elevations in blood pressure are associated with cognitive dysfunction in OSA. Nocturnal pulse transit time was measured as a surrogate for arterial blood pressure during sleep. Results: Of the 75 patients, 12 had no obstructive sleep apnoea, 26 had mild OSA, 18 moderate, and 19 severe OSA. The results revealed that systolic blood pressure peaks were associated with OSA severity, while diastolic blood pressure peaks were not. Peaks of nocturnal systolic blood pressure were independently associated with poorer performance on a test of visuospatial function, but not with impairments on tests of sustained attention, reaction time or autobiographical memory. Conclusion: The present findings indicate nocturnal peaks of systolic blood pressure that are substantially higher than normal daytime values may contribute to visuospatial dysfunction in OSA. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.