May measurement month 2017 : an analysis of blood pressure screening results worldwide
- Authors: Beaney, Thomas , Schutte, Aletta , Tomaszewski, Maciej , Ariti, Cono , Burrell, Louise , Castillo, Rafael , Charchar, Fadi , Damasceno, Albertino , Kruger, Ruan , Lackland, Daniel , Nilsson, Peter , Prabhakaran, Dorairaj , Ramirez, Agustin , Schlaich, Markus , Wang, Jiguang , Weber, Michael , Poulter, Neil
- Date: 2018
- Type: Text , Journal article
- Relation: The Lancet Global Health Vol. 6, no. 7 (2018), p. e736-e743
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- Description: Background: Increased blood pressure is the biggest contributor to the global burden of disease and mortality. Data suggest that less than half of the population with hypertension is aware of it. May Measurement Month was initiated to raise awareness of the importance of blood pressure and as a pragmatic interim solution to the shortfall in screening programmes. Methods: This cross-sectional survey included volunteer adults (≥18 years) who ideally had not had their blood pressures measured in the past year. Each participant had their blood pressure measured three times and received a a questionnaire about demographic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. The primary objective was to raise awareness of blood pressure, measured by number of countries involved, number of people screened, and number of people who have untreated or inadequately treated hypertension (defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or both, or on the basis of receiving antihypertensive medication). Multiple imputation was used to estimate the mean of the second and third blood pressure readings if these were not recorded. Measures of association were analysed using linear mixed models. Findings: Data were collected from 1 201 570 individuals in 80 countries. After imputation, of the 1 128 635 individuals for whom a mean of the second and third readings was available, 393 924 (34·9%) individuals had hypertension. 153 905 (17·3%) of 888 616 individuals who were not receiving antihypertensive treatment were hypertensive, and 105 456 (46·3%) of the 227 721 individuals receiving treatment did not have controlled blood pressure. Significant differences in adjusted blood pressures and hypertension prevalence were apparent between regions. Adjusted blood pressure was higher in association with antihypertensive medication, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Blood pressure was higher when measured on the right arm than on the left arm, and blood pressure was highest on Saturdays. Interpretation: Inexpensive global screening of blood pressure is achievable using volunteers and convenience sampling. Pending the set-up of systematic surveillance systems worldwide, MMM will be repeated annually to raise awareness of blood pressure. Funding: International Society of Hypertension, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Servier Pharmaceutical Co.
May measurement month 2018 : A pragmatic global screening campaign to raise awareness of blood pressure by the international society of hypertension
- Authors: Beaney, Thomas , Burrell, Louise , Castillo, Rafael , Charchar, Fadi , Cro, Suzie , Damasceno, Albertino , Kruger, Ruan , Nilsson, Peter , Prabhakaran, Dorairaj , Ramirez, Agustin , Schlaich, Markus , Schutte, Aletta , Tomaszewski, Maciej , Touyz, Rhian , Wang, Ji-Guang , Weber, Michael , Poulter, Neil
- Date: 2019
- Type: Text , Journal article , Review
- Relation: European Heart Journal Vol. 40, no. 25 (2019), p. 2006-2017
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- Description: Aims: Raised blood pressure (BP) is the biggest contributor to mortality and disease burden worldwide and fewer than half of those with hypertension are aware of it. May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global campaign set up in 2017, to raise awareness of high BP and as a pragmatic solution to a lack of formal screening worldwide. The 2018 campaign was expanded, aiming to include more participants and countries. Methods and results: Eighty-nine countries participated in MMM 2018. Volunteers (≥18 years) were recruited through opportunistic sampling at a variety of screening sites. Each participant had three BP measurements and completed a questionnaire on demographic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP ≥140mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication. In total, 74.9% of screenees provided three BP readings. Multiple imputation using chained equations was used to impute missing readings. 1 504 963 individuals (mean age 45.3 years; 52.4% female) were screened. After multiple imputation, 502 079 (33.4%) individuals had hypertension, of whom 59.5% were aware of their diagnosis and 55.3% were taking antihypertensive medication. Of those on medication, 60.0% were controlled and of all hypertensives, 33.2% were controlled. We detected 224 285 individuals with untreated hypertension and 111 214 individuals with inadequately treated (systolic BP ≥ 140mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg) hypertension. Conclusion: May Measurement Month expanded significantly compared with 2017, including more participants in more countries. The campaign identified over 335 000 adults with untreated or inadequately treated hypertension. In the absence of systematic screening programmes, MMM was effective at raising awareness at least among these individuals at risk.
May measurement month 2019 the global blood pressure screening campaign of the International Society of Hypertension
- Authors: Beaney, Thomas , Schutte, Aletta , Stergiou, George , Borghi, Claudio , Burger, Dylan , Charchar, Fadi , Cro, Suzie , Diaz, Alejandro , Damasceno, Albertino , Espeche, Walter , Jose, Arun , Khan, Nadia , Kokubo, Yoshihiro , Maheshwari, Anuj , Marin, Marcos , More, Arun , Neupane, Dinesh , Nilsson, Peter , Patil, Mansi , Prabhakaran, Dorairaj , Ramirez, Agustin , Rodriguez, Pablo , Schlaich, Markus , Steckelings, Ulrike , Tomaszewski, Maciej , Unger, Thomas , Wainford, Richard , Wang, Jiguang , Williams, Bryan , Poulter, Neil , M. M. M. Investigators
- Date: 2020
- Type: Text , Journal article
- Relation: Hypertension Vol. 76, no. 2 (Aug 2020), p. 333-341
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- Description: Elevated blood pressure remains the single biggest risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease and mortality. May Measurement Month is an annual global screening campaign aiming to improve awareness of blood pressure at the individual and population level. Adults (>= 18 years) recruited through opportunistic sampling were screened at sites in 92 countries during May 2019. Ideally, 3 blood pressure readings were measured for each participant, and data on lifestyle factors and comorbidities were collected. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure >= 140 mm Hg, or a diastolic blood pressure >= 90 mm Hg (mean of the second and third readings) or taking antihypertensive medication. When necessary, multiple imputation was used to estimate participants' mean blood pressure. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate associations between blood pressure and participant characteristics. Of 1 508 130 screenees 482 273 (32.0%) had never had a blood pressure measurement before and 513 337 (34.0%) had hypertension, of whom 58.7% were aware, and 54.7% were on antihypertensive medication. Of those on medication, 57.8% were controlled to <140/90 mm Hg, and 28.9% to <130/80 mm Hg. Of all those with hypertension, 31.7% were controlled to <140/90 mm Hg, and 350 825 (23.3%) participants had untreated or inadequately treated hypertension. Of those taking antihypertensive medication, half were taking only a single drug, and 25% reported using aspirin inappropriately. This survey is the largest ever synchronized and standardized contemporary compilation of global blood pressure data. This campaign is needed as a temporary substitute for systematic blood pressure screening in many countries worldwide.