There is a demand for effective training methods that encourage exercise adherence during advancing age, particularly in sedentary populations. This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQL), aerobic fitness and motivation to exercise in ageing men. Participants consisted of males who were either lifelong sedentary (SED; N = 25; age 63 +/- 5 years) or lifelong exercisers (LEX; N = 19; aged 61 +/- 5 years). [Formula: see text] and HRQL were measured at three phases: baseline (Phase A), week seven (Phase B) and week 13 (Phase C). Motivation to exercise was measured at baseline and week 13. [Formula: see text] was significantly higher in LEX (39.2 +/- 5.6 ml kg min(-1)) compared to SED (27.2 +/- 5.2 ml kg min(-1)) and increased in both groups from Phase A to C (SED 4.6 +/- 3.2 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1 - 6.0; LEX 4.9 +/- 3.4 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1-6.6) Physical functioning (97 +/- 4 LEX; 93 +/- 7 SED) and general health (70 +/- 11 LEX; 78 +/- 11 SED) were significantly higher in LEX but increased only in the SED group from Phase A to C (physical functioning 17 +/- 18, 95 % CI 9-26, general health 14 +/- 14, 95 % CI 8-21). Exercise motives related to social recognition (2.4 +/- 1.2 LEX; 1.5 +/- 1.0 SED), affiliation (2.7 +/- 1.0 LEX; 1.6 +/- 1.2 SED) and competition (3.3 +/- 1.3 LEX; 2.2 +/- 1.1) were significantly higher in LEX yet weight management motives were significantly higher in SED (2.9 +/- 1.1 LEX; 4.3 +/- 0.5 SED). The study provides preliminary evidence that low-volume HIIT increases perceptions of HRQL, exercise motives and aerobic capacity in older adults, to varying degrees, in both SED and LEX groups.
Affective forecasting refers to the capacity to predict future feelings. Humans have been found to exhibit systematic affective forecasting biases that involve overestimation of the intensity and duration of future feelings. Although recent research has elucidated the proximate mechanisms underlying our ability to predict future feelings, explanations concerning the potential adaptive significance of these biases have attracted little attention. Here we consider the function of affective forecasts as signals of biological value, drivers of goal pursuit, and tools for eliciting collaboration. Although affective forecasting biases can have significant costs, for instance in terms of one's pursuit of happiness, they may ultimately serve adaptive functions.