Urinary incontinence is a common and distressing condition. Using focus groups, we explored the views of ten ethnic language groups in Melbourne about knowledge and awareness of incontinence. The 218 participants (with or without incontinence) spoke with trained interpreters. Twenty focus group discussions of single and mixed sex groups were audio-recorded and transcribed into English. Narratives were analyzed using thematic analysis with open coding and also incorporated themes from literature. Participants' knowledge of incontinence was low and incontinence was thought to be an inevitable consequence of ageing. There was little understanding of treatments or assistance available under government-funded programmes. No group was aware of the national continence programme or phone helpline. Sensitivities of the topic plus language barriers in immigrant culturally and linguistically diverse communities may impose barriers to accessing help. Several groups thought they would cope with incontinence by themselves, while all groups suggested they would be able to discuss the condition with a doctor. Various preferences voiced about social limitations and permissible communications with others are described. Nurses should be aware of the needs and communication preferences of ethnic language groups regarding continence information and continence service delivery.
Aims and objectives: To investigate burnout among nurses from Australia and China and explore the effects of resilience and turnover intention on nurse burnout between the two countries. Background: Nursing shortages and burnout have become serious problems worldwide in recent years. In both developed and developing countries, such as Australia and China, nurse burnout levels are high and therefore attract concern from nurse managers, hospital administrators, nurse educators and researchers. However, few studies have been conducted exploring the differences in burnout and its predictors between Australian and Chinese nurses, particularly investigating the differences in the effect sizes of the predictors. Design: A comparative cross-sectional design was employed. Methods: A total of 100 Australian nurses and 197 Chinese nurses participated in the study. Australian participants completed an online questionnaire, while Chinese participants completed a hardcopy questionnaire. Burnout, resilience and turnover intention were measured. Results: Burnout was worse for Australian participants than Chinese participants. Only having turnover intention significantly predicted burnout in Australian participants, while low resilience, having turnover intention and low level of regular exercise strongly predicted burnout in Chinese participants. The effect size of turnover intention on burnout in the Australian group was almost twice that of the Chinese group. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that there are differences in burnout between Australian and Chinese nurses. The effects of resilience and turnover intention on burnout between the two groups are also identified. Relevance to clinical practice: The differences in nurse burnout and the effects of resilience and turnover intention on burnout should be better understood by nurse managers from Australia and China. Moreover, developing effective strategies relevant to their own country to reduce nurse burnout is recommended.