Children's route choice during active transportation to school : Difference between shortest and actual route
- Authors: Dessing, Dirk , de Vries, Sanne , Hegeman, Geerje , Verhagen, Evert , van Mechelen, Willem , Pierik, Frank
- Date: 2016
- Type: Text , Journal article
- Relation: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity Vol. 13, no. 1 (2016), p. 1-11
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- Description: Background: The purpose of this study is to increase our understanding of environmental correlates that are associated with route choice during active transportation to school (ATS) by comparing characteristics of actual walking and cycling routes between home and school with the shortest possible route to school. Methods: Children (n = 184; 86 boys, 98 girls; age range: 8-12 years) from seven schools in suburban municipalities in the Netherlands participated in the study. Actual walking and cycling routes to school were measured with a GPS-device that children wore during an entire school week. Measurements were conducted in the period April-June 2014. Route characteristics for both actual and shortest routes between home and school were determined for a buffer of 25 m from the routes and divided into four categories: Land use (residential, commercial, recreational, traffic areas), Aesthetics (presence of greenery/natural water ways along route), Traffic (safety measures such as traffic lights, zebra crossings, speed bumps) and Type of street (pedestrian, cycling, residential streets, arterial roads). Comparison of characteristics of shortest and actual routes was performed with conditional logistic regression models. Results: Median distance of the actual walking routes was 390.1 m, whereas median distance of actual cycling routes was 673.9 m. Actual walking and cycling routes were not significantly longer than the shortest possible routes. Children mainly traveled through residential areas on their way to school ( > 80 % of the route). Traffic lights were found to be positively associated with route choice during ATS. Zebra crossings were less often present along the actual routes (walking: OR = 0.17, 95 % CI = 0.05-0.58; cycling: OR = 0.31, 95 % CI = 0.14-0.67), and streets with a high occurrence of accidents were less often used during cycling to school (OR = 0.57, 95 % CI = 0.43-0.76). Moreover, percentage of visible surface water along the actual route was higher compared to the shortest routes (walking: OR = 1.04, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.07; cycling: OR = 1.03, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.05). Discussion: This study showed a novel approach to examine built environmental exposure during active transport to school. Most of the results of the study suggest that children avoid to walk or cycle along busy roads on their way to school. © 2016 Dessing et al.
Injury risk during different physical activity behaviours in children: A Systematic review with bias assessment
- Authors: Nauta, Joske , Martin-Diener, Eva , Martin, Brian , van Mechelen, Willem , Verhagen, Evert
- Date: 2015
- Type: Text , Journal article
- Relation: Sports Medicine Vol. 45, no. 3 (2015), p. 327-336
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- Description: Results: Eight studies were included. The risk of bias assessment resulted in two studies with a score that was higher than 75 %; risk bias of those two studies was considered low. The medically treated, injury incidence rate was reported to be between 0.15 and 0.27 injuries per 1,000 h of physical activity. The absolute number of injuries related to unorganised leisure time physical activity was higher than the absolute number of injuries reported in organised sports. The respective injury incidence rate expressed per 1,000 h exposure was, however, generally lower during unorganised leisure time than during organised sports. Reported injury incidence rates related to active commuting were comparable to those for unorganised leisure time physical activity. Conflicting injury incidence rates were reported for physical education. Subgroup analysis suggested that girls and children with low habitual levels of physical activity are at increased injury risk. A limitation of the review is that no standard bias assessment was available for this specific context.Conclusions: Children are at an inherent injury risk while participating in physical activities. Most injury prevention efforts have focussed on the sports setting, but our results suggest that many children sustain an injury during unorganised leisure time physical activities.Introduction: The current focus on a physically active lifestyle in children puts children at increased physical activity-related injury risk.Objective: To summarise, in a systematic review, the evidence for the injury risk of several physical activity behaviours in 6- to 12-year-old children.Methods: An electronic search was performed in three databases (Embase, PubMed and SPORTDiscus). Inclusion criteria were: age 6–12 years; report on injuries related to overall physical activity, active commuting, unorganised leisure time physical activity, physical education and/or organised sports; incidence rates expressed as injuries per hours of physical activity; and published after January 1st 2000. Risk of bias was assessed for all studies included. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.