There is an extensive and growing research literature, particularly in the psychology and management disciplines, concerning ‘bridge employment’ which, it is argued, is increasingly occurring between the end of a career job and full retirement. However, this area is undertheorised and lacking a long view in terms of an appreciation of the wider literature concerned with work and retirement, in particular being informed by the political economy and lifecourse perspectives. Bridging the gap between work and retirement is of current concern as governments push out the ages at which people work and retire, with retirement, once considered the moral foundation of social welfare systems, being refashioned as a kind of unemployment. This chapter takes a critical stance on what we describe as the new retirement and the concept of bridge employment, questioning the motives for the emergence of the former and the latter’s utility for researchers and policymakers as a lens through which to view the evolution of work–retirement transitions.
In recent decades there has been a shift in labor market public policy from a culture of early retirement to one centered on hiring older workers, i.e., those aged over 50. The culture of early exit flourished in most major industrialized economies until the 1990s. Previously, older workers who left the workforce prematurely were regarded to be early retirees rather than unemployed. Their joblessness ended not with their reentering the workforce but transferring to pensions (Casey and Laczko 1989). Subsequently, there has been a policy shift towards prolonging working lives that has been generated by population aging in general as well as the aging of workforces in specific industry sectors, such as nursing and teaching.
, Book chapter
, Electronic book section
"In Australia and South Africa, as in many other states, an important aspect of higher education policy entails initiatives to broaden participation among under-represented student groups. In response, universities have developed pathways to higher education that aim to attract, prepare and retain students from increasingly diverse backgrounds. In order to do this, it is important to develop an informed understanding of how these students experience university. Student voices in transition : the experiences of pathways students explores how previously under-represented students perceive university and learn to successfully adapt. Student voices in transition reports the voices of students who entered university through access pathways at Monash University in Australia and South Africa. It provides insight into why these students sought university qualifications, how they adjusted to university study, the challenges they faced and the rewards they experienced. It identifies the issues faced by commencing university students, particularly those who have past experiences of modest academic achievement, and what the transition to university actually involves, regardless of how it is reported by experts, lecturers or institutions."--Back cover.