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An open mapping theorem

- Gabriyelyan, Saak, Morris, Sidney

**Authors:**Gabriyelyan, Saak , Morris, Sidney**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Bulletin of the Australian Mathematical Society Vol. 94, no. 1 (2016), p. 65-69**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**It is proved that any surjective morphism f : Z(k) -> K onto a locally compact group K is open for every cardinal k. This answers a question posed by Hofmann and the second author.

**Authors:**Gabriyelyan, Saak , Morris, Sidney**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Bulletin of the Australian Mathematical Society Vol. 94, no. 1 (2016), p. 65-69**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**It is proved that any surjective morphism f : Z(k) -> K onto a locally compact group K is open for every cardinal k. This answers a question posed by Hofmann and the second author.

Borwein-Preiss variational principle revisited

- Kruger, Alexander, Plubtieng, Somyot, Seangwattana, Thidaporn

**Authors:**Kruger, Alexander , Plubtieng, Somyot , Seangwattana, Thidaporn**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications Vol. 435, no. 2 (2016), p. 1183-1193**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP110102011**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**In this article, we refine and slightly strengthen the metric space version of the Borwein-Preiss variational principle due to Li and Shi (2000) [12], clarify the assumptions and conclusions of their Theorem 1 as well as Theorem 2.5.2 in Borwein and Zhu (2005) [4] and streamline the proofs. Our main result, Theorem 3 is formulated in the metric space setting. When reduced to Banach spaces (Corollary 9), it extends and strengthens the smooth variational principle established in Borwein and Preiss (1987) [3] along several directions. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

**Authors:**Kruger, Alexander , Plubtieng, Somyot , Seangwattana, Thidaporn**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications Vol. 435, no. 2 (2016), p. 1183-1193**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP110102011**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**In this article, we refine and slightly strengthen the metric space version of the Borwein-Preiss variational principle due to Li and Shi (2000) [12], clarify the assumptions and conclusions of their Theorem 1 as well as Theorem 2.5.2 in Borwein and Zhu (2005) [4] and streamline the proofs. Our main result, Theorem 3 is formulated in the metric space setting. When reduced to Banach spaces (Corollary 9), it extends and strengthens the smooth variational principle established in Borwein and Preiss (1987) [3] along several directions. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Comparative analysis of numerical solution of optimal control problems

- Shangareeva, Gulnaz, Grigoryev, Igor, Mustafina, Svetlana

**Authors:**Shangareeva, Gulnaz , Grigoryev, Igor , Mustafina, Svetlana**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Vol. 110, no. 4 (2016), p. 645-649**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**In this article step by step algorithms were developed for solving optimal control problems based on the method of successive approximations and the method of variations in the space of controls. The algorithm of the method of successive approximations requires details of the problem to the boundary problem of the maximum principle. In turn, the algorithm of the variations is more versatile because it is based on iterating state variables and control in the phase space. A numerical study and comparative analysis of the developed algorithms performed at different values of accuracy. © 2016 Academic Publications, Ltd.

**Authors:**Shangareeva, Gulnaz , Grigoryev, Igor , Mustafina, Svetlana**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Vol. 110, no. 4 (2016), p. 645-649**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**In this article step by step algorithms were developed for solving optimal control problems based on the method of successive approximations and the method of variations in the space of controls. The algorithm of the method of successive approximations requires details of the problem to the boundary problem of the maximum principle. In turn, the algorithm of the variations is more versatile because it is based on iterating state variables and control in the phase space. A numerical study and comparative analysis of the developed algorithms performed at different values of accuracy. © 2016 Academic Publications, Ltd.

Nonmeasurable subgroups of compact groups

- Hernández, Salvador, Hofmann, Karl, Morris, Sidney

**Authors:**Hernández, Salvador , Hofmann, Karl , Morris, Sidney**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Group Theory Vol. 19, no. 1 (2016), p. 179-189**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**In 1985 S. Saeki and K. Stromberg published the following question: Does every infinite compact group have a subgroup which is not Haar measurable? An affirmative answer is given for all compact groups with the exception of some metric profinite groups which are almost perfect and strongly complete. In this spirit it is also shown that every compact group contains a non-Borel subgroup. © 2016 by De Gruyter 2016 Generalitat Valenciana PROMETEO/2014/062 We are grateful for our referee's useful comments. In particular, the suggestion that originally we had overlooked [Pacific J. Math. 116 (1985), 217-241] shortened the proof of Theorem 4.3 considerably.

**Authors:**Hernández, Salvador , Hofmann, Karl , Morris, Sidney**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Group Theory Vol. 19, no. 1 (2016), p. 179-189**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**In 1985 S. Saeki and K. Stromberg published the following question: Does every infinite compact group have a subgroup which is not Haar measurable? An affirmative answer is given for all compact groups with the exception of some metric profinite groups which are almost perfect and strongly complete. In this spirit it is also shown that every compact group contains a non-Borel subgroup. © 2016 by De Gruyter 2016 Generalitat Valenciana PROMETEO/2014/062 We are grateful for our referee's useful comments. In particular, the suggestion that originally we had overlooked [Pacific J. Math. 116 (1985), 217-241] shortened the proof of Theorem 4.3 considerably.

On Cournot-Nash-Walras equilibria and their computation

- Outrata, Jiri, Ferris, Michael, Červinka, Michal, Outrata, Michal

**Authors:**Outrata, Jiri , Ferris, Michael , Červinka, Michal , Outrata, Michal**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Set-Valued and Variational Analysis Vol. 24, no. 3 (2016), p. 387-402**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**This paper concerns a model of Cournot-Nash-Walras (CNW) equilibrium where the Cournot-Nash concept is used to capture equilibrium of an oligopolistic market with non-cooperative players/firms who share a certain amount of a so-called rare resource needed for their production, and the Walras equilibrium determines the price of that rare resource. We prove the existence of CNW equilibria under reasonable conditions and examine their local stability with respect to small perturbations of problem data. In this way we show the uniqueness of CNW equilibria under mild additional requirements. Finally, we suggest some efficient numerical approaches and compute several instances of an illustrative test example. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

On the maximum order of graphs embedded in surfaces

- Nevo, Eran, Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo, Wood, David

**Authors:**Nevo, Eran , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Wood, David**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Combinatorial Theory. Series B Vol. 119, no. (2016), p. 28-41**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**The maximum number of vertices in a graph of maximum degree

**Authors:**Nevo, Eran , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo , Wood, David**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Combinatorial Theory. Series B Vol. 119, no. (2016), p. 28-41**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**The maximum number of vertices in a graph of maximum degree

Regularity of collections of sets and convergence of inexact alternating projections

- Kruger, Alexander, Thao, Nguyen

**Authors:**Kruger, Alexander , Thao, Nguyen**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Convex Analysis Vol. 23, no. 3 (2016), p. 823-847**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP110102011**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**We study the usage of regularity properties of collections of sets in convergence analysis of alternating projection methods for solving feasibility problems. Several equivalent characterizations of these properties are provided. Two settings of inexact alternating projections are considered and the corresponding convergence estimates are established and discussed.

Weaker conditions for subdifferential calculus of convex functions

- Correa, Rafael, Hantoute, Abderrahim, López, Marco

**Authors:**Correa, Rafael , Hantoute, Abderrahim , López, Marco**Date:**2016**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Functional Analysis Vol. 271, no. 5 (2016), p. 1177-1212**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP160100854**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**In this paper we establish new rules for the calculus of the subdifferential mapping of the sum of two convex functions. Our results are established under conditions which are at an intermediate level of generality among those leading to the Hiriart-Urruty and Phelps formula (Hiriart-Urruty and Phelps, 1993 [15]), involving the approximate subdifferential, and the stronger assumption used in the well-known Moreau-Rockafellar formula (Rockafellar 1970, [23]; Moreau 1966, [20]), which only uses the exact subdifferential. We give an application to derive asymptotic optimality conditions for convex optimization.**Description:**In this paper we establish new rules for the calculus of the subdifferential mapping of the sum of two convex functions. Our results are established under conditions which are at an intermediate level of generality among those leading to the Hiriart-Urruty and Phelps formula (Hiriart-Urruty and Phelps, 1993 [15]), involving the approximate subdifferential, and the stronger assumption used in the well-known Moreau-Rockafellar formula (Rockafellar 1970, [23]; Moreau 1966, [20]), which only uses the exact subdifferential. We give an application to derive asymptotic optimality conditions for convex optimization. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

**Authors:**Sultanova, Nargiz**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Bulletin of the Australian Mathematical Society Vol. 91, no. 3 (2015), p. 523-524**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**Nonsmooth optimisation problems are problems which deal with minimisation or maximisation of functions that are not necessarily differentiable. They arise frequently in many practical applications, for example in engineering, machine learning and economics. In addition, some smooth problems can be reformulated as nonsmooth optimisation problems with a simpler structure or a smaller dimension. Despite the fact that there exist many algorithms for solving nonsmooth optimisation problems, the field is still very much in development. Nonsmooth nonconvex optimisation, in particular, is far from being considered a mature branch of optimisation.

An additive subfamily of enlargements of a maximally monotone operator

- Burachik, Regina, Martinez-Legaz, Juan, Rezaie, Mahboubeh, Thera, Michel

**Authors:**Burachik, Regina , Martinez-Legaz, Juan , Rezaie, Mahboubeh , Thera, Michel**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Set-Valued and Variational Analysis Vol. 23, no. 4 (2015), p. 643-665**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**We introduce a subfamily of additive enlargements of a maximally monotone operator. Our definition is inspired by the early work of Simon Fitzpatrick. These enlargements constitute a subfamily of the family of enlargements introduced by Svaiter. When the operator under consideration is the subdifferential of a convex lower semicontinuous proper function, we prove that some members of the subfamily are smaller than the classical epsilon-subdifferential enlargement widely used in convex analysis. We also recover the epsilon-subdifferential within the subfamily. Since they are all additive, the enlargements in our subfamily can be seen as structurally closer to the epsilon-subdifferential enlargement.

**Authors:**Burachik, Regina , Martinez-Legaz, Juan , Rezaie, Mahboubeh , Thera, Michel**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Set-Valued and Variational Analysis Vol. 23, no. 4 (2015), p. 643-665**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**We introduce a subfamily of additive enlargements of a maximally monotone operator. Our definition is inspired by the early work of Simon Fitzpatrick. These enlargements constitute a subfamily of the family of enlargements introduced by Svaiter. When the operator under consideration is the subdifferential of a convex lower semicontinuous proper function, we prove that some members of the subfamily are smaller than the classical epsilon-subdifferential enlargement widely used in convex analysis. We also recover the epsilon-subdifferential within the subfamily. Since they are all additive, the enlargements in our subfamily can be seen as structurally closer to the epsilon-subdifferential enlargement.

Continuants and some decompositions into squares

- Delorme, Charles, Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo

**Authors:**Delorme, Charles , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Integers Vol. 15, no. (2015), p. 1**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**In 1855 H. J. S. Smith proved Fermat's two-square using the notion of palindromic continuants. In his paper, Smith constructed a proper representation of a prime number

**Authors:**Delorme, Charles , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Integers Vol. 15, no. (2015), p. 1**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**In 1855 H. J. S. Smith proved Fermat's two-square using the notion of palindromic continuants. In his paper, Smith constructed a proper representation of a prime number

Criteria for epi/hypo convergence of finite-valued bifunctions

- Diem, Huynh Thi Hong, Khanh, Phan Quoc

**Authors:**Diem, Huynh Thi Hong , Khanh, Phan Quoc**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Vietnam Journal of Mathematics Vol. 43, no. 2 (2015), p. 439-458**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**Epi/hypo convergence of finite-valued bivariate functions defined on the product of two subsets, with some connections to lopsided convergence, is considered. Namely, we deal with three full characterizations of this convergence: by epi/hypo convergence of the corresponding proper bifunctions, by explicit formulae of the lower and upper members of the intervals of the limits, and by the bicontinuity of the partial Legendre-Fenchel transform (i.e., the (extended) epi/hypo convergence of bifunctions is characterized by the epi-convergence of their convex parents). We emphasize that epi/hypo limits are not unique and form an entire equivalence class. © 2015 Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and Springer Science+Business Media Singapore.

Error bounds and Hölder metric subregularity

**Authors:**Kruger, Alexander**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Set-Valued and Variational Analysis Vol. 23, no. 4 (2015), p. 705-736**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**The Holder setting of the metric subregularity property of set-valued mappings between general metric or Banach/Asplund spaces is investigated in the framework of the theory of error bounds for extended real-valued functions of two variables. A classification scheme for the general Holder metric subregularity criteria is presented. The criteria are formulated in terms of several kinds of primal and subdifferential slopes.

**Authors:**Kruger, Alexander**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Set-Valued and Variational Analysis Vol. 23, no. 4 (2015), p. 705-736**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**The Holder setting of the metric subregularity property of set-valued mappings between general metric or Banach/Asplund spaces is investigated in the framework of the theory of error bounds for extended real-valued functions of two variables. A classification scheme for the general Holder metric subregularity criteria is presented. The criteria are formulated in terms of several kinds of primal and subdifferential slopes.

Graphical derivatives and stability analysis for parameterized equilibria with conic constraints

- Mordukhovich, Boris, Outrata, Jiri, Ramirez, Hector

**Authors:**Mordukhovich, Boris , Outrata, Jiri , Ramirez, Hector**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Set-Valued and Variational Analysis Vol. 23, no. 4 (2015), p. 687-704**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**The paper concerns parameterized equilibria governed by generalized equations whose multivalued parts are modeled via regular normals to nonconvex conic constraints. Our main goal is to derive a precise pointwise second-order formula for calculating the graphical derivative of the solution maps to such generalized equations that involves Lagrange multipliers of the corresponding KKT systems and critical cone directions. Then we apply the obtained formula to characterizing a Lipschitzian stability notion for the solution maps that is known as isolated calmness.

**Authors:**Mordukhovich, Boris , Outrata, Jiri , Ramirez, Hector**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Set-Valued and Variational Analysis Vol. 23, no. 4 (2015), p. 687-704**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**The paper concerns parameterized equilibria governed by generalized equations whose multivalued parts are modeled via regular normals to nonconvex conic constraints. Our main goal is to derive a precise pointwise second-order formula for calculating the graphical derivative of the solution maps to such generalized equations that involves Lagrange multipliers of the corresponding KKT systems and critical cone directions. Then we apply the obtained formula to characterizing a Lipschitzian stability notion for the solution maps that is known as isolated calmness.

Quadratic form representations via generalized continuants

- Delorme, Charles, Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo

**Authors:**Delorme, Charles , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Integer Sequences Vol. 18, no. 6 (2015), p. Article number 15.6.4**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**H. J. S. Smith proved Fermat’s two-square theorem using the notion of palindromic continuants. In this paper we extend Smith’s approach to proper binary quadratic form representations in some commutative Euclidean rings, including rings of integers and rings of polynomials over fields of odd characteristic. Also, we present new deterministic algorithms for finding the corresponding proper representations. © 2015 University of Waterloo. All rights reserved.

Varieties of abelian topological groups with coproducts

- Gabriyelyan, Saak, Leiderman, Arkady, Morris, Sidney

**Authors:**Gabriyelyan, Saak , Leiderman, Arkady , Morris, Sidney**Date:**2015**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Algebra Universalis Vol. 74, no. 3-4 (2015), p. 241-251**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**Varieties of groups, introduced in the 1930s by Garret Birkhoff and B.H. Neumann, are defined as classes of groups satisfying certain laws or equivalently as classes of groups closed under the formation of subgroups, quotient groups, and arbitrary cartesian products. In the 1960s the third author introduced varieties of topological groups as classes of (not necessarily Hausdorff) topological groups closed under subgroups, quotient groups and cartesian products with the Tychonoff topology. While there is only a countable number of varieties of abelian groups, there is a proper class of varieties of abelian topological groups. We observe that while every variety of abelian groups is closed under abelian coproducts, varieties of abelian topological groups are in general not closed under abelian coproducts with the coproduct topology. So this paper studies varieties of abelian topological groups which are also closed under abelian coproducts with the coproduct topology. Noting that the variety of all abelian groups is singly generated, that is, it is the smallest variety containing some particular group, but that the variety of all abelian topological groups is not singly generated, it is proved here that the variety of all abelian topological groups with coproducts is indeed singly generated. There is much literature describing varieties of topological groups generated by various classical topological groups, and the study of varieties with coproducts generated by particular classical topological groups is begun here. Some nice results are obtained about those varieties of abelian topological groups with coproducts which are also closed with regard to forming Pontryagin dual groups. © 2015, Springer Basel.

About [q]-regularity properties of collections of sets

- Kruger, Alexander, Thao, Nguyen

**Authors:**Kruger, Alexander , Thao, Nguyen**Date:**2014**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications Vol. 416, no. 2 (2014), p. 471-496**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP110102011**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**We examine three primal space local Holder type regularity properties of finite collections of sets, namely, [q]-semiregularity, [q]-subregularity, and uniform [q]-regularity as well as their quantitative characterizations. Equivalent metric characterizations of the three mentioned regularity properties as well as a sufficient condition of [q]-subregularity in terms of Frechet normals are established. The relationships between [q]-regularity properties of collections of sets and the corresponding regularity properties of set-valued mappings are discussed.**Description:**We examine three primal space local Holder type regularity properties of finite collections of sets, namely, [q]-semiregularity, [q]-subregularity, and uniform [q]-regularity as well as their quantitative characterizations. Equivalent metric characterizations of the three mentioned regularity properties as well as a sufficient condition of [q]-subregularity in terms of Frechet normals are established. The relationships between [q]-regularity properties of collections of sets and the corresponding regularity properties of set-valued mappings are discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

**Authors:**Kruger, Alexander , Thao, Nguyen**Date:**2014**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications Vol. 416, no. 2 (2014), p. 471-496**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP110102011**Full Text:****Reviewed:****Description:**We examine three primal space local Holder type regularity properties of finite collections of sets, namely, [q]-semiregularity, [q]-subregularity, and uniform [q]-regularity as well as their quantitative characterizations. Equivalent metric characterizations of the three mentioned regularity properties as well as a sufficient condition of [q]-subregularity in terms of Frechet normals are established. The relationships between [q]-regularity properties of collections of sets and the corresponding regularity properties of set-valued mappings are discussed.**Description:**We examine three primal space local Holder type regularity properties of finite collections of sets, namely, [q]-semiregularity, [q]-subregularity, and uniform [q]-regularity as well as their quantitative characterizations. Equivalent metric characterizations of the three mentioned regularity properties as well as a sufficient condition of [q]-subregularity in terms of Frechet normals are established. The relationships between [q]-regularity properties of collections of sets and the corresponding regularity properties of set-valued mappings are discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Calmness of the feasible set mapping for linear inequality systems

- Cánovas, Maria, López, Marco, Parra, Juan, Toledo, Javier

**Authors:**Cánovas, Maria , López, Marco , Parra, Juan , Toledo, Javier**Date:**2014**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Set-Valued and Variational Analysis Vol. 22, no. 2 (2014), p. 375-389**Relation:**http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP110102011**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**In this paper we deal with parameterized linear inequality systems in the n-dimensional Euclidean space, whose coefficients depend continuosly on an index ranging in a compact Hausdorff space. The paper is developed in two different parametric settings: the one of only right-hand-side perturbations of the linear system, and that in which both sides of the system can be perturbed. Appealing to the backgrounds on the calmness property, and exploiting the specifics of the current linear structure, we derive different characterizations of the calmness of the feasible set mapping, and provide an operative expresion for the calmness modulus when confined to finite systems. In the paper, the role played by the Abadie constraint qualification in relation to calmness is clarified, and illustrated by different examples. We point out that this approach has the virtue of tackling the calmness property exclusively in terms of the system's data.

Constructions of large graphs on surfaces

- Feria-Purón, Ramiro, Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo

**Authors:**Feria-Purón, Ramiro , Pineda-Villavicencio, Guillermo**Date:**2014**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Graphs and Combinatorics Vol. 30, no. 4 (2014), p. 895-908**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**We consider the degree/diameter problem for graphs embedded in a surface, namely, given a surface

On optimal control of a sweeping process coupled with an ordinary differential equation

**Authors:**Adam, Lukas , Outrata, Jiri**Date:**2014**Type:**Text , Journal article**Relation:**Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems - Series B Vol. 19, no. 9 (November 2014 2014), p. 2709-2738**Full Text:**false**Reviewed:****Description:**We study a special case of an optimal control problem governed by a differential equation and a differential rate{independent variational inequality, both with given initial conditions. Under certain conditions, the variational inequality can be reformulated as a differential inclusion with discontinuous right-hand side. This inclusion is known as sweeping process. We perform a discretization scheme and prove the convergence of optimal solutions of the discretized problems to the optimal solution of the original problem. For the discretized problems we study the properties of the solution map and compute its coderivative. Employing an appropriate chain rule, this enables us to compute the subdifferential of the objective function and to apply a suitable optimization technique to solve the discretized problems. The investigated problem is used to model a situation arising in the area of queuing theory.

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