Nowadays, more and more images are available. However, to find a required image for an ordinary user is a challenging task. Large amount of researches on image retrieval have been carried out in the past two decades. Traditionally, research in this area focuses on content based image retrieval. However, recent research shows that there is a semantic gap between content based image retrieval and image semantics understandable by humans. As a result, research in this area has shifted to bridge the semantic gap between low level image features and high level semantics. The typical method of bridging the semantic gap is through the automatic image annotation (AIA) which extracts semantic features using machine learning techniques. In this paper, we focus on this latest development in image retrieval and provide a comprehensive survey on automatic image annotation. We analyse key aspects of the various AIA methods, including both feature extraction and semantic learning methods. Major methods are discussed and illustrated in details. We report our findings and provide future research directions in the AIA area in the conclusions
This paper presents a novel ranking framework for content-based multimedia information retrieval (CBMIR). The framework introduces relevance features and a new ranking scheme. Each relevance feature measures the relevance of an instance with respect to a profile of the targeted multimedia database. We show that the task of CBMIR can be done more effectively using the relevance features than the original features. Furthermore, additional performance gain is achieved by incorporating our new ranking scheme which modifies instance rankings based on the weighted average of relevance feature values. Experiments on image and music databases validate the efficacy and efficiency of the proposed framework.