The operation of a water distribution system is a complex task which involves scheduling of pumps, regulating water levels of storages, and providing satisfactory water quality to customers at required flow and pressure. Pump scheduling is one of the most important tasks of the operation of a water distribution system as it represents the major part of its operating costs. In this paper, a novel approach for modeling of pump scheduling to minimize energy consumption by pumps is introduced which uses pump's start/end run times as continuous variables. This is different from other approaches where binary integer variables for each hour are typically used which is considered very impractical from an operational perspective. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem and a new algorithm is developed for its solution. This algorithm is based on the combination of the grid search with the Hooke-Jeeves pattern search method. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated using literature test problems applying the hydraulic simulation model EPANet.
There are many improvements to operation that can be made to a water distribution system once it has been constructed and placed in ground. Pipes and associated storages and pumps are typically designed to meet average peak daily demands, offer some capacity for growth, and also allow for some deterioration of performance over time. However, the 'as constructed' performance of the pipeline is invariably different to what was designed on paper, and this is particularly so for anything other than design flows, such as during times of water restrictions when there are significantly reduced flows. Because of this, there remain significant benefits to owners and operators for the adaptive and global optimisation of such systems. The present paper uses the Ouyen subsystem of the Northern Mallee Pipeline, in Victoria, as a case study for the development of an optimisation model. This has been done with the intent of using this model to reduce costs and provide better service to customers on this system. The Ouyen subsystem consists of 1600 km of trunk and distribution pipeline servicing an area of 456,000 Ha. The system includes 2 fixed speed pumps diverting water from the Murray River at Liparoo into two 150 ML balancing storages at Ouyen, 4 variable speed pumps feeding water from the balancing storages into the pipeline system, 2 variable speed pressure booster pumps and 5 town balancing storages. When considering all these components of the system, power consumption becomes an important part of the overall operation. The present paper considers a global optimisation model to minimise power consumption while maintaining reasonable performance of the system. The main components of the model are described including the network structure and the costs functions associated with the system. The final model presents the cost functions associated with the pump scheduling, including the penalties descriptions associated with maintaining appropriate storages levels and pressure bounds within the water distribution network.