Hydraulic simulation models have become a valuable tool to manage water distribution networks commencing from their initial design through their operation, assessment of the level of service to customers, system performance improvement, analysis of planning alternatives, to system optimisation. The development of hydraulic models can be a time consuming task with complex and large scale water distribution networks being particularly challenging. The Wimmera Mallee Pipeline (WMP) in Western Victoria, Australia is a recently constructed and unique regional scale water distribution system which consists of over 8,800 km of pressurised pipelines spreading across an area of approximately 20,000 km 2. Currently, the WMP provides water to 34 townships, rural farms and other water users across the Wimmera Mallee region with an annual design capacity of 31.6 mil. m 3. The WMP sources its water from multiple reservoirs in the Grampians mountain ranges in the south and the River Murray in the north. Grampians Wimmera Mallee Water (GWMWater) is the local water organisation responsible for managing the WMP. GWMWater is currently initiating the development of a water market to generate and support growth, and to ensure that water is available for the highest value social, economic or environmental use. The hydraulic models discussed in this paper will assure that informed decisions are made by GWMWater regarding the capacity to deliver water through the pipeline system, and therefore the extent of trade by customers. The philosophy for development of the WMP hydraulic models was to replicate the real system as credibly as possible into the level of required accuracy for decision making, yet enable simple model operation, maintenance and update. The network is modelled to the individual customer level in order to accommodate small diameter pipes. Modelling at this level simplifies the future model maintenance and updates, and also ensures the compatibility with other GWMWater's systems such as Geographic Information System (GIS) and the customer database. A major part of the model development consisted of data preparation. This was undertaken by using "as constructed" GIS asset data captured during the WMP construction and entered into a GIS database (ArcGIS by ESRI). Due to the scale of the system and associated amounts of data, it was essential to develop sophisticated data transformation and validation procedures to simplify the model build which thereby minimised manual data entry and potential sources of errors. This paper focuses on the methodologies and techniques used in data preparation for hydraulic models and development of hydraulic models. An example is also provided of how the models will be used as a decision support tool in water supply and allocation planning.
Terrorism has progressed to a global phenomenon as a terrorist attack has an immediate effect on society not only in the targeted area, but also across the rest of the world. Acts of terrorism are extremely difficult to predict or provide early warning in most cases. In consideration of Australia, which is to a certain extent insulated from the rest of the world by virtue of the sea barrier, there is a history of terrorist incidents reported back to the 1970s. Since the attack on New York in September 2001, the level of terrorism alert to Australia has increased significantly with a current 'Medium' national level of threat. Critical Infrastructure (CI), which is considered essential for contemporary social human existence, has been impacted by multiple and variable external threats in modern times. The destruction at Chernobyl in 1986 and more recent events such as the terrorist incidents at Madrid in 2004, London in 2005, Moscow in 2011 and the tsunami in Japan in 2011 indicate the vulnerability of this infrastructure. Such events translate to threats from both natural disasters referred to as all hazard origin and human interventions such as terrorism. Subsequently, some private and government organisations of CI now regularly rehearse and simulate models of both terrorist incidents and all hazard events as a proactive protection strategy and business continuity process. These models are implemented in a form of scripted Crisis Simulation Exercises (CSE) which simulate a crisis within an organisation in order to strengthen an organisation's ability to manage crisis situations. CI organisations which adopt these strategies are able to mitigate impact of these crises and therefore, are considered to reflect a more resilient organisation to the effects of external impact. CSEs test plans, procedures, equipment and personnel to industry standards required. Within the spectrum of counter-terrorism in particular, the CSEs are becoming more sophisticated and reflective of reality with incorporation of live actions to ensure credibility and reality. The simulated scenario may include a variety of attack methodologies such as biological, chemical, cyber and conventional bombs/blasts and bullets to maintain exercise standards with continuously developing technology of terrorist attacks. This paper defines the topic of terrorism with the profile of terrorists, and examines the terrorism concept and environment both in Australia and internationally including future considerations. It also provides an overview of the simulated framework for mitigation of crisis associated with CI protection with an Australian perspective, suitable for CI protection worldwide. Additionally, this paper examines the concept of terrorism simulation, illustrating a strong case for future simulation progression with some innovative ideas and futuristic predictions as to where terrorist simulations may advance to across the future.